Permanent pacemaker therapy in children with complete heart block is necessary occasionally. Ten patients ranging in age from 8 months to 15 years were treated with an implanted P-wave, synchronous epicardial pacemaker. Indications for implantation were persisting postsurgical heart block, congestive failure, syncopal attacks, and arrhythmias. There were two deaths not attributed to pacemaker malfunction. The remaining eight children have been followed up for 38 to 108 months. There have been 27 pulse generator replacements. Twenty-three were for battery exhaustion, three for electromechanical failure, and one was due to arrhythmia. Rhythm disturbances have occurred on eight occasions. There have been no infections. It is concluded that the implanted P-wave synchronous pacemaker is an effective method of therapy when indicated for children with complete heart block.