Of ten very young infants with the nephrotic syndrome, the cause was congenital syphilis in six cases. Two others had an idiopathic type of the syndrome, one recovering and the other being much improved. One child was an example of the congenital nephrotic syndrome and died. Another infant died from an undetermined cause, possibly a nephrotoxic condition. Involvement of the kidney in congenital syphilis is discussed and comparison made with the renal lesions in acquired syphilis. A suggested classification of the nephrotic syndrome in very young infants is offered.