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Josef Warkany, MD
Am J Dis Child. 1971;121(5):365-370. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1971.02100160035001.
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It is well known that congenital malformations have a marked tendency to aggregate in persons damaged by adverse prenatal influences. Abnormal genes, chromosomes, and environmental factors show little respect for the limits of organs as we know them in postnatal life. Teratogenic factors act at a time when organs and organ systems are in stages of differentiation with a biochemistry, physiology, and anatomy of their own. Disturbing factors often lead to widespread pathologic changes and multiple defects which can occur in a bewildering number of combinations and permutations. The teratologic taxonomist has an understandable desire to bring a modicum of order to this medley and to find principles of classification for the apparent chaos. To this purpose "syndromes" of congenital malformations that show a tendency to "run together" have been suggested and established in the past and with the renewed interest in clinical teratology, new syndromes are now introduced


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