The management of patients with congenital esophageal atresia or tracheo-esophageal fistula or both is frequently complicated by episodes of severe respiratory distress and cyanosis. It is often difficult to determine whether an associated cardiovascular anomaly exists and of what possible significance such an anomaly might be. Prompted by this clinical problem, a review was undertaken of the cardiovascular anomalies seen in 183 cases of congenital esophageal atresia with or without tracheo-esophageal fistula at the Babies Hospital since 1935. The surgical management of patients with congenital esophageal atresia has been reported from this institution by Humphreys, Hogg, and Ferrer.1,2 The focus of the present review is limited to the significance of cardiovascular malformations in patients with congenital esophageal atresia.
Table 1 lists the 183 patients according to the presence or absence of cardiovascular anomalies, survival, and year of birth. Direct anastomosis of the proximal and distal esophageal segments