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Influenza Virus B as Cause of Acute Croup Syndrome

JACK D. POLAND, MD; EVELYN R. WELTON, AB; TOM D. Y. CHIN, MD
Am J Dis Child. 1964;107(1):54-57. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1964.02080060056008.
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Clinical croup is a syndrome known to be caused by a multiplicity of agents. Although certain bacteria (ie, Hemophilus influenzae) are well known as causative agents of this syndrome, viruses appear to be the most frequent cause. In 1948 Rabe 1 presented a study of 347 cases of infectious croup accumulated over a ten-year period from which he concluded that the majority (86%) were of nonbacterial etiology. Subsequent studies have shown that many nonbacterial cases of croup are associated with viral agents. The viruses most frequently found to be associated with croup belong to the parainfluenza virus group.2,3 Other viral agents which have been etiologically related are adenoviruses and influenza viruses.3 The etiologic importance of influenza virus type A in croup was recently reviewed by Cramblett.4 Evidence that type A influenza virus caused croup in infants has been presented by Forbes,5 Vargosko et al,3 and

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