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Congenital Deformities of the Museuloskeletal System Noted in the Newborn

EDGAR M. BICK, M.D.
Am J Dis Child. 1960;100(6):861-868. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1960.04020040863009.
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Between October, 1954, and December, 1958, five thousand newly born babies were examined by the writer of this report. These were unselected consecutive Obstetrical Service cases made available through the courtesy of its Director, Dr. Alan Guttmacher, and Dr. Horace Hodes, Director of the Pediatric Service. Each examination was made within a few days of birth, and most of them within 36 hours.

The objectives of the investigation were chiefly twofold: (1) to form a numerical base of reference for the occurrence of certain relatively common congenital deformities of the musculoskeletal system which could be applied to continuing studies by the Orthopaedic Service of this Hospital (or others) on the natural history of these lesions, and (2) to determine the relationship, if any, of certain maternal factors, especially those connected with the circumstances of the mother's pregnancy.

While 5,000 newborn are a fair enough collection for study, the relatively small

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