Scaphocephaly, the result of fusion of the sagittal suture during the period of maximum growth of the skull, is the commonest of the cranial stenoses. Clinically significant fusion probably commences before birth. It occurs more commonly in males (80% approximately); there is a certain hereditary tendency; frequently there are associated congenital anomalies.
Mental retardation and ocular difficulties, such as poor vision, diplopia, and nystagmus, undoubtedly occur in the more severe forms of synostosis cranii, but in pure scaphocephaly their incidence and their relationship to the deformity are still matters of speculation. In fact, ocular symptoms have rarely been reported. Mental defect has been described, but whether it exists independently as yet one more congenital anomaly or is really secondary to the synortosis is uncertain. The failure of a great many children with brachycephaly to improve mentally after apparently adequate surgical treatment of their skull deformity lends support to the belief