Recent reports have called attention to a form of acute infection with myocarditis in the neonatal period, caused by members of the Coxsackie B group of viruses. These have been recognized on the basis of their association with outbreaks of Bornholm disease or "summer grippe" in adults or as a result of direct isolation of the virus from tissues or blood or feces of affected infants.1-13 Interestingly, only sporadic cases have been known to occur on the American continent, while most of the outbreaks have been reported from South Africa. There are now at least 34 cases known to have been caused by Coxsackie B virus Types 2, 3, 4 or 5 (Table). Although recent observations have shown Coxsackie infection in the newborn to be a generalized disease, myocarditis has been the most constant clinical and pathologic finding.
Because of the lack of characteristic symptoms in the newborn the