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Hypocalcemic States in Infancy and Childhood

DONALD GRIBETZ, M.D.
AMA Am J Dis Child. 1957;94(3):301-312. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1957.04030040087014.
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Hypocalcemia may manifest itself by a variety of seemingly unrelated signs and symptoms as well as by classical tetany. A low serum calcium may also be associated with diseases of several different bodily systems. During the past three years, 20 infants and children with hypocalcemia of varying etiology have been studied.

It is the purpose of this report to present a concise, orderly approach to the differential diagnosis of the low-calcium state. Clinical examples will be described in order to illustrate the conditions that may be associated with low levels of serum calcium. Diagnostic features, useful laboratory procedures, and methods of therapy will be discussed.

In any consideration of the possible causes of hypocalcemia, one must take into account the factors which affect calcium homeostasis. Figure 1 presents diagrammatically some of these factors, including those

NTAKE CALCIUM & PHOSPH. VITAMIN D PROTEIN VITAMIN C BONE CATAB. & ANABOLISM STRESSES &

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