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Chronic Pulmonary Emphysema Physiopathology and Treatment.

AMA Am J Dis Child. 1954;87(2):251-252. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1954.02050090239014.
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The pathology, physiology and treatment of chronic pulmonary emphysema are discussed in the light of their clinical manifestations in this authoritative monograph. Particularly well covered are pulmonary function tests and the carbon dioxide intoxication syndrome. Emphysematous patients characteristically have decreased vital capacity, increased residual air volume, and diminished ventilatory reserve. Hypoxia is present even at rest in the later stages of the disease, and respiratory acidosis occurs in the final stage. The latter is established by simultaneous pCO2 and pH determinations on arterial blood and is characterized by increased partial pressure of CO2 in the presence of a lowered pH. The effects of respiratory depression, by either depressant drugs or overzealous oxygen therapy, are emphasized. Sections on management are up to date and applicable to general clinical practice. Included are discussions of oxygen therapy, cortisone and corticotropin, aerosols, mechanical breathing apparatuses, and pneumoperitoneum.

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