THE PURPOSE of this report is to record a case of acute myeloblastic leukemia in an infant 8 days old. The unusual feature of this case is that a dermatological lesion was present simulating urticaria pigmentosa. The findings on a skin biopsy were interpreted as consistent with urticaria pigmentosa by a skin histopathologist. Further clinical and hematological observations finally led to the diagnosis of true acute leukemia, and this was proved by autopsy.
Leukemia occurring in the newborn in the first month of life is rare. Case reports of leukemia occurring within this age usually call it congenital leukemia. This appellation implies that the disease was acquired in utero. A review of the literature, however, reveals that the majority of cases reported under this diagnosis indicate there is little or no proof that the disease was actually congenital. Twelve cases can be accurately classified as such. Cross1 cited eight