The Snyder et al study1 examines drinking by youth and young adults, segments of special interest in alcohol advertising research. However, the study has serious limitations in planning and execution.
The study often refers to a “youth sample” but 50% were 21 years and older. Although the study is called “longitudinal,” two thirds of the sample were not followed up through the 4 interview periods.
Although the study is correlational and cannot show causality, alcohol advertising is assumed to be the cause of drinking. The analyses are limited to demographic and advertising variables, but variables that best explain youth alcohol consumption (eg, peer drinking, parents drinking, and religion) are left out.
The study claims that more advertising leads to more drinking. However, Table 2 in the Snyder et al study1 shows that those who saw the most advertising actually decreased their drinking.
There is no reference to experimental, economic, and advertising-ban studies, predominantly showing negative effects on alcohol consumption. This suggests a biased, 1-sided view of alcohol advertising effects.
The measurement of alcohol use combines average and maximum number of drinks, giving the same weight to maximum, although most drinkers rarely drink their maximum and also take maximums into account when reporting averages. The reliability and validity of the measure have not been assessed and must be suspect.
In areas where there was more drinking, there was more alcohol advertising, but religious and alcohol-availability factors were omitted.
The study had major problems with attrition because the sample went from 1872 to 588 in 21 months or 31% at time 4. The nonattriters were different than the attriters in drinking levels. With 24 media areas and less than 50% of respondents younger than 21 years, smaller areas would have few youth by time 4. There is no power analysis and the power to detect real results for youth would then be low.
Anomalies appear in the alcohol consumption data (eg, at baseline, black and Hispanic individuals drank substantially more than white individuals). Also, those younger than 23 years drank far more than those aged 23 to 26 years. These results suggest sampling biases, because their findings are different from large, well-established data sets.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and
Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early
dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Pediatrics editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.