Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected parents, even when not infected themselves, may be greatly affected by the disease. One concern is that parents fear transmitting HIV to their children; another is fear of contracting a communicable illness from their children when they are sick. In this nationally representative sample of 344 HIV-infected parents, 42% reported fearing catching an infection from their child, and more than one third feared transmitting HIV to their children. Consequently, more than one quarter of parents avoided at least 1 type of normal interaction with their children, such as kissing, hugging, and sharing utensils. This may represent an important need for physicians to provide education to HIV-infected parents and reassurance about HIV transmission and the safety of various activities.