We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
The Pediatric Forum |

Outcomes After “Benign” Extra-Axial Fluid—Reply

Scott A. Lorch, MD, MSCE; Judy Bernbaum, MD
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(10):1017. doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.10.1017-b.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


In reply

We thank Dr Harkavy for his careful reading of our article. First, we appreciate the difficulty in the use of the word control to describe the reference group in any epidemiologic study. Dr Harkavy refers to a control group as in a randomized trial where there is an intervention; however, as seen in the use of the word control in case-control studies, a control group can also refer to any population of patients to whom the study is comparing the group of interest.1 In our study, we chose to focus on the population of infants with macrocephaly who were examined at a pediatrician’s office or in a neonatal follow-up group. Our “cases” were those infants with the conditions of interest (ie, benign extra-axial fluid). Thus, our “controls” were those infants without extra-axial fluid. We realize that to answer other questions a different cohort of patients should be recruited. For example, to ascertain the true incidence and effect of extra-axial fluid in children receiving ECMO, the appropriate control group would be infants treated with ECMO who did not develop extra-axial fluid. Because of the significant number of infants lost to follow-up in most neonatal follow-up programs, we were concerned about the potential biases in doing this study.





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles