To determine the intake of LND foods, it was necessary to identify foods belonging in this category from those reported in the 24-hour dietary recall. As a first step, the 2578 foods reported by the analytic sample were classified as belonging to 1 or more of the 5 major food groups (dairy, fruit, grain, meat, and vegetable) or the LND food group by methods described previously.10,21,22 Briefly, the assignment of foods into the various groups was dependent on their nutrient content and uses in the diet. The dairy group included milk, yogurt, cheese, and buttermilk, but excluded butter, cream cheese, and dairy desserts. The fruit group included all fresh, frozen, dried, and canned fruits and fruit juices, but excluded fruit drinks. The grain group included all breads, cereals, pastas, and rice, but not pastries. The meat group included meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternates such as dried beans, nuts, and seeds. The vegetable group included all raw or cooked fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables and juices. Mixed dishes containing foods from several groups were grouped into all the relevant groups. Foods excluded from these major food groups were grouped into the LND foods group. The LND foods were further placed into 5 subgroups as follows: (1) visible fat: butter, oil, dressings, gravies, etc; (2) sweeteners: sugar, syrup, candy, carbonated and noncarbonated sweetened drinks, etc; (3) baked and dairy desserts: cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, ice cream, puddings, cheesecakes, etc; (4) salted snacks: potato, corn, and tortilla chips, etc; and (5) miscellaneous: coffee, tea, condiments, etc.