The Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal for physicians and other health care professionals who contribute to the health of children and adolescents. The Archives provides an open forum for dialogue on a full range of clinical, scientific, advocacy, and humanistic issues relevant to the care of pediatric patients from infancy through young adulthood. The Archives is a vehicle for increased attention to adolescent health, the education of pediatric health care professionals, and disease prevention and health promotion. The
Archives publishes original studies, editorials, reviews by experts, practice commentaries, case quizzes, and updates on clinical science and practice management. The Pediatric Forum provides our readers with opportunities to express their views. Archives incorporates AJDC, the oldest journal in US pediatric literature, which originated in 1911.
Editor: Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Department of Pediatrics
Child Health Institute
University of Washington
6200 NE 74th St, Suite 210
Seattle, WA 98115-8160
Phone: (206) 685-3573 Fax: (206) 685-3572
Associate Editors: Abraham Bergman, MD Seattle, Wash
Dimitri A. Christakis, MD, MPH Seattle, Wash
Alain Joffe, MD, MPH Baltimore, Md
Editorial Manager: Suzanne Shuey Seattle, Wash
Statistical Consultant: Peter Cummings, MD, MPH Bishop, Calif
Jeffrey P. Brosco, MD, PhD Miami, Fla
Ellen F. Crain, MD, PhD Bronx, NY
Leona Cuttler, MD Cleveland, Ohio
Phyllis Armelle Dennery, MD Palo Alto, Calif
Carolyn DiGuiseppi, MD, MPH Denver, Colo
Gary L. Freed, MD, MPH Ann Arbor, Mich
Frances P. Glascoe, EdS, PhD Nashville, Tenn
Gregory L. Landry, MD Madison, Wis
Harold P. Lehmann, MD, PhD Baltimore, Md
David Lewis, MD Palo Alto, Calif
Susan G. Millstein, MS, PhD San Francisco, Calif
Vaughn I. Rickert, PsyD New York, NY
David Schonfeld, MD New Haven, Conn
Donald F. Schwarz, MD, MPH, MBA Philadelphia, Pa
Phillip M. Sherman, MD, FRCPC Toronto, Ontario
Robert C. Whitaker, MD, MPH Princeton, NJ
Book Reviews and Other Media: Abraham Bergman, MD Seattle, Wash
Clinical Problem Solving: Abraham Bergman, MD Seattle, Wash
Evidence-Based Journal Club: Dimitri A. Christakis, MD, MPH Seattle, Wash
Offices: 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60610
Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH Editor in Chief, Scientific Publications & Multimedia Applications
Cheryl Iverson Managing Editor
Department Director: Paula Glitman
Copyediting Manager: Brenda Gregoline
Freelance Copyediting Manager: Diane L. Cannon
Freelance Copyediting Coordinators: Lauren B. Fischer, Connie Manno
Editorial Systems Managers: Paul Frank, Monica Mungle
Systems Programmer/Internet Specialist: J. D. Neff
Senior Copy Editor: Vickey Golden
Copy Editors: Juana N. Llorens, Rachel Novickas, Cheryl L. Tobey, Rachel Bodzin Young
Editorial Assistant: Wanda Hill
Assistant to the Editor: Helga Fritz
Director: Margaret Winker, MD
Electronic Media Department Director: Michelle Kurzynski
Associate Web Editors: Katherine Behar, Erin M. Giannini
Web Office Manager: Marla A. Hall
Group Publisher: Nawin Gupta, PhD
VP Office Staff: James Clinton, Geoffrey Flick, Terri Hanley, Maureen Archey, Anna Goins
International Business and Development: William Fox (director), Norman Frankel, PhD, Rhonda Bailey, Millette Jackson-Bates
Online Business and CME: Bonnie Chi-Lum, MD, MPH (publisher)
Director: Curt Reilly
Managers: Vida Damijonaitis, Kim Krebs, Thalia Moss
Staff: Kathy Braun, Ana Dirksen, Sandra Garzon, Christine Hearne, Amy Postlewait, Trina Rizzo, Barbara Van Wagner
Director: Peter J. Murphy
Sales Representatives: Peter G. Messina, Philip G. Soufleris
Marketing Services: Nancy Bell
Staff: Victoria Anne Acot, Susan Lovenberg, Mirna Monal, Debra Ann Sardo
Director: Mark Kuhns
Staff: Wanda Bartolotta, Joseph Rekash
Division Director: Vanessa Hayden
Directors: Karen Adams-Taylor, Paul Gasiecki, Sue Sherrill
Managers: David Antos, Karen Branham, Debbie Camp, Diane Darnell, Karl Elvin, Betty Frigerio, Linda Gardner, Mary Ellen Johnston, Mark Matura, Michael McGraw, Phil O'Leary, Susan Price, Charl Richey, Alfred Tomaselli, Carmela Ware
Advertising and Production Services: Linda Alexander, LaWanda Brown, Susan Chiara, Mary Anne Donley, Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Brian McCartney, Sean O'Donnell, Noemi Olmo, Carole Piszker, Sarah Powell, Denise Steinhauser, Ellen Yoshihara
Circulation Processing: Bernadette Bauer, Julie Burton, Rosa Eng, Felicia Kyles, Lawrence Majkszak, Kathryn Osten
Composition and New Media: Rebecca Aiken, Clifford Barrett, Gail Barrett, Regina Brownlee, Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Rowena Dagang, Amy Evers, Mary Ann Kuranda, Sandra Lopez, John Marcinek, Bruce McGregor, La'son Diggs Sledge, Angela Smits
Graphics: Joe Amft, Fred Furtner, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski, Chris Meyer, JoAnne Weiskopf
Proofreading: Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Barbara Wojtowicz, Agnes A. Zarkadas
All articles published, including editorials, letters, and book reviews, represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the policy of the American Medical Association, the Editorial Board, or the institution with which the author is affiliated, unless this is clearly specified.
Copyright 2003 by the American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
Michael D. Maves, MD, MBA Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer
Robert A. Musacchio, PhD Senior Vice President, Publishing & Business Services
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