Critical illnesses and their requisite therapies expose children to extreme stressors, including pain and separation from their families. Critical illnesses are also, by definition, life threatening. Psychiatric disorders, which can be triggered by exposure to extreme stressors in a vulnerable population, are a potential concern in survivors of pediatric critical illness. This review examined 17 studies of children hospitalized for the treatment of a critical illness. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder after a critical illness was 0% to 21%, with a median prevalence of 13%; the prevalence of major depression was 0% to 6%, with a median prevalence of 3%. Precritical illness psychopathology was a potential vulnerability factor for post–prenatal intensive care unit psychiatric morbidity. Clinicians should recognize that psychiatric illnesses are common in pediatric critical illness survivors, requiring collaboration between pediatric intensivists, surgeons, pediatricians, child psychiatrists, pediatric psychologists, and social workers in a multidisciplinary team to ensure prompt, comprehensive evaluation and treatment.