In general, patients with disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis require treatment. Solitary cutaneous leishmaniasis may resolve spontaneously. However, treatment is also recommended for large, multiple, nonhealing or progressing lesions or infections in cosmetically important areas, as disfiguring scars may develop. For topical treatment, different physical modalities (cryotherapy, surgical excision, and local application of heat) as well as topical drugs (paromomycin, 15%), photodynamic treatment, and local infiltration of pentavalent antimonials are effective.2,5- 7Pentavalent antimonials (sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimonite) have been used as first-line systemic treatment, depending on the severity of the infection and leishmania subgenus. As they can cause significant adverse effects, other treatments, such as amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, pentamidine, miltefosine, and allopurinol, have been evaluated.1- 2,5- 7However, the current evidence for treatment of leishmaniasis is poor and the safety profile of each drug needs to be considered particularly in children. Leishmania vaccines or chemoprophylaxis are currently not available. Thus, for travelers to endemic countries, the use of insect repellants, insecticides, fine-mesh bed nets, and long-sleeved clothing are recommended for the prevention of leishmaniasis.