In this study, Hawkins and colleagues examined the effects of school-based interventions during elementary school years on functioning at ages 24 and 27 years, 12 to 15 years after the intervention ended. Individuals who received the full intervention were more likely than controls to have continued their education beyond high school and had higher incomes at age 27 years. The intervention was associated with fewer symptoms of mental health disorders at ages 24 and 27 years, but there was no effect on substance abuse or dependence or crime. The lifetime prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases was also lower in this group. This study indicates that interventions during elementary school to improve the performance of teachers, strengthen parenting practices, and ensure that children have the skills to participate in the social and academic life of their school can have positive effects on the children's functioning many years later.