To determine the frequency of recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the average time until subsequent infection following a baseline PID diagnosis, and age- and insurance-related associations with subsequent diagnoses.
This study used prospective longitudinal follow-up of STI and/or PID outcome data from electronic medical records.
An urban academic hospital system.
A total of 110 adolescent girls treated for PID as outpatients in pediatric ambulatory sites.
Electronic medical records used to assess subsequent PID diagnoses and/or infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis during the study window.
Main Outcome Measures
Demographic, health care use, and STI and/or PID outcome data were examined. Incidence of an STI and/or PID was calculated as incident cases per person-months of exposure. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to evaluate the incidence of STI by age or insurance status.
The mean (SD) age was 16.8 (1.9) years, 89% of patients were black, and 39% had laboratory results that were positive for N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis at baseline. Thirty-four percent of patients had an additional diagnosis of an STI during the 48-month follow-up window (incidence, 3.1 per 100 person-months) and the mean (SD) time to a subsequent STI and/or PID was 377 (297) days. Of those patients, 67% (n = 18) had chlamydia, 11% had gonorrhoeae, and 44% had PID. There were no differences based on age or insurance status.
Adolescents treated for PID are at risk for subsequent STI and/or PID for a 48-month period. Given the need to prevent future infections in these vulnerable youths, efforts to explore the value of ongoing strategies for risk reduction after diagnosis are warranted.