A preliminary search of PubMed revealed that before 1997, no longitudinal studies in children and adolescents examining the association between depressive symptoms and overweight had been published. Moreover, most of the cross-sectional studies have been published in the last 10 years. Therefore, we performed searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science in May 2007 for all indexed journals from January 1, 1997, to May 30, 2007. Keywords included depression, depressive disorder, internalizing disorders, mental disorders, obesity, and overweight limited to “all child.” Additional studies were identified in the bibliographies of the articles. Only English-language articles that were peer reviewed were considered. This resulted in 513 articles, of which abstracts were reviewed manually. Most articles concerned a different topic (n = 460), such as “Exercise Therapy as a Treatment for Psychologic Conditions in Obese and Morbidly Obese Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,”10 and “The Link Between Short Sleep Duration and Obesity: We Should Recommend More Sleep to Prevent Obesity.”11 Studies were excluded if conducted in an adult population (n = 10) or in a population of all age groups (n = 2). Reviews (n = 5) were excluded as well. In addition, clinic-based populations of obese children and adolescents seeking treatment (n = 5) were excluded because populations seeking treatment differ from population-based samples and, therefore, were considered beyond the scope of this article. In view of the limited number of published articles on longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies were reviewed as well, to support the existence of an association between depressive symptoms and overweight. We extracted age, sex, and sample size of the population; measure of depressive symptoms; assessment of weight and height (measurement or self-report); main result (positive, negative, or no association), and effect size. If available, odds ratios (ORs) or β levels were used as indicators of effect size. If not, other available measures such as correlations and maximum explained variances were extracted. First, we included all studies that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 32, including 21 cross-sectional and 11 longitudinal reports). Second, we focused on the quality of the various studies. Quality was determined by 4 criteria, namely, whether studies were based on questionnaires specifically validated for depressive symptoms; whether investigators measured body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) rather than using self-reported values; whether they also evaluated important confounding variables, specifically, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status5; and whether investigators reported an effect size. Four cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies were in accord with these criteria.