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In This Issue of JAMA Pediatrics |

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JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(3):187. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2508.
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RESEARCH

Decreasing the amount of caloric beverages consumed and simultaneously increasing water consumption are important to promoting child health and decreasing the prevalence of childhood obesity. Schwartz and colleagues examine the effect of water jet installation in public elementary and middle schools for more than 1 million students in New York City. The program resulted in a reduction of body mass index in both boys and girls, a reduction in the number of overweight children, and a 12.3% decrease in milk consumption. Turner and Hager’s editorial discusses the power of this low-cost intervention.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent condition that may be associated with an altered gastrointestinal microbiota; synbiotics, a mixture of prebiotics and probiotics, have been used for preventing and treating AD. This meta-analysis by Chang and colleagues examines 6 treatment and 2 prevention randomized clinical trials in children. They found a significant effect of synbiotics compared with placebo for the treatment, but not the prevention, of AD in children, especially when using a mixed-strain probiotic component and for children aged 1 year or older. In their editorial, Tang and Lodge discuss the strength of the data and the need to define the optimal treatment parameters for the use of synbiotics in AD.

An increasing percentage of births are conceived with assisted reproductive technology and other infertility treatment. Yeung and colleagues examine results from the Upstate KIDS Study, which recruited mothers and their children from New York state (excluding New York City) between 2008 and 2010 and was designed to assess the association between the mode of conception and children’s development through age 3 years. The study found no evidence suggesting that children’s development through age 3 years was associated with any type of infertility treatment in comparison with children conceived without such treatments after accounting for plurality.

While family-centered care supports family presence (FP) during procedures, there is a paucity of data regarding the practice of FP during tracheal intubation (TI) in pediatric intensive care units. Sanders and colleagues examine the prevalence of FP and its effect on the procedure in 4696 TIs. Family presence varied from 0% to 43% across sites and had no effect on first attempt success rate, adverse events, or oxygen desaturation. The data suggest that FP during TI can safely be implemented as part of a family-centered care model.

CLINICAL REVIEW & EDUCATION

Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among youth is critical to guide investment and inform policies. This report from the Global Burden of Disease Pediatrics Collaboration examines levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among youth in 188 countries. Of the 7.7 million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013, more than 80% occurred among younger children and, of the 135.6 million years lived with disability, nearly 60% were contributed by adolescents. The editorial by Wise and Darmstadt discusses the need to generate and use accurate child mortality and morbidity data worldwide.

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