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Research Letter |

Changes in Academic Demands and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

Jeffrey P. Brosco, MD, PhD1; Anna Bona, BS2
[+] Author Affiliations
1Mailman Center for Child Development, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
2University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(4):396-397. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4132.
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This study investigated whether changes in academic demands since the 1970s have contributed to the rise in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among young children in the United States.

The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children in the United States has doubled since the 1970s.1 Possible reasons include changes in diagnostic criteria and epidemiological methods, shifts in national policy regarding disability and special education, marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry, and secular trends such as the effect of electronic media.

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Figure 1.
Time Spent Studying per Week

Derived from data in the report by Hofferth and Sandberg.3

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Figure 2.
Enrollment in Preprimary Programs

Derived from data from the National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education.6

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