We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Research Letter |

The Nutritional and Social Environment-Related Effects of Breastfeeding on Intelligence

Fabian Kosse, Dr rer pol1
[+] Author Affiliations
1Institute for Applied Microeconomics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(2):173-174. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3201.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


This study discusses the debate on the existence of nutritional effects of the duration of breastfeeding on intelligence.

While various studies document a positive association between duration of breastfeeding and the child’s intelligence, there is an ongoing discussion about the mechanisms behind that association.1,2 The usual approach to distinguish between nutritional and confounding environment-related effects is to control for observable environmental factors in the analysis. Varying availability and measures of control variables make comparisons across studies difficult and lead to different results concerning the partial correlation between duration of breastfeeding and intelligence.1,2 This study provides a new empirical test of the purely nutritional effect of breastfeeding on the child’s intelligence and does not rely on the availability of control variables.

Figures in this Article

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview


Place holder to copy figure label and caption
IQ at 30 Years and Short Durations of Breastfeeding

Linear, quadratic, and cubic predictions of the association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ based on ordinary least-squares estimates, as well as the actual mean IQ of individuals who were not breastfed.

Graphic Jump Location




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles