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Original Investigation |

Effectiveness of a Statewide Abusive Head Trauma Prevention Program in North Carolina

Adam J. Zolotor, MD, DrPH1,2; Desmond K. Runyan, MD, DrPH3; Meghan Shanahan, PhD2,4; Christine Piette Durrance, PhD5; Maryalice Nocera, MSN2; Kelly Sullivan, PhD6; Joanne Klevens, MD, PhD7; Robert Murphy, PhD6,8; Marilyn Barr, BIS9; Ronald G. Barr, MDCM, FRCPC10,11
[+] Author Affiliations
1Department of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
2Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
3Department of Pediatrics, Kempe Center, University of Colorado, Aurora
4Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
5Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
6Center for Child and Family Health, Durham, North Carolina
7Division of Violence Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
8Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina
9National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome, Farmington, Utah
10Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
11Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(12):1126-1131. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2690.
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Importance  Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a serious condition, with an incidence of approximately 30 cases per 100 000 person-years in the first year of life.

Objective  To assess the effectiveness of a statewide universal AHT prevention program.

Design, Setting, and Participants  In total, 88.29% of parents of newborns (n = 405 060) in North Carolina received the intervention (June 1, 2009, to September 30, 2012). A comparison of preintervention and postintervention was performed using nurse advice line telephone calls regarding infant crying (January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010). A difference-in-difference analysis compared AHT rates in the prevention program state with those of other states before and after the implementation of the program (January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011).

Intervention  The Period of PURPLE Crying intervention, developed by the National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome, was delivered by nurse-provided education, a DVD, and a booklet, with reinforcement by primary care practices and a media campaign.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Changes in proportions of telephone calls for crying concerns to a nurse advice line and in AHT rates per 100 000 infants after the intervention (June 1, 2009, to September 30, 2011) in the first year of life using hospital discharge data for January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011.

Results  In the 2 years after implementation of the intervention, parental telephone calls to the nurse advice line for crying declined by 20% for children younger than 3 months (rate ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.87; P < .001) and by 12% for children 3 to 12 months old (rate ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.99; P = .03). No reduction in state-level AHT rates was observed, with mean rates of 34.01 person-years before the intervention and 36.04 person-years after the intervention. A difference-in-difference analysis from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011, controlling for economic indicators, indicated that the intervention did not have a statistically significant effect on AHT rates (β coefficient, −1.42; 95% CI, −13.31 to 10.45).

Conclusions and Relevance  The Period of PURPLE Crying intervention was associated with a reduction in telephone calls to a nurse advice line. The study found no reduction in AHT rates over time in North Carolina relative to other states. Consequently, while this observational study was feasible and supported the program effectiveness in part, further programmatic efforts and evaluation are needed to demonstrate an effect on AHT rates.

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Figure.
State-Level Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) Rates for Children Younger Than 1 Year in North Carolina and 5 Comparison States

Based on hospital discharge data, January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011.

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