Evidence Synthesis of Risk Factors for Global Cognitive Impairment in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight
Prognostic factors are presented if significant (P < .05) in the final model of at least 1 study with low-to-moderate risk of bias and entered into the final model of at least 3 studies (across all ages). A through T indicate study identifiers listed in Table 1 and Table 2 (* denotes an extremely preterm cohort); SES, socioeconomic status.
aNonwhite (B and E), black (C), or Afro-Caribbean (G).
bIntraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia (B, C, D, F, H, I, L, M, O, S, and T), periventricular leukomalacia or ventricular dilatation (R), intraventricular hemorrhage grades 2 to 4 (A), parenchymal lesion (Q), intraventricular hemorrhage grades 1 to 3, echodensities, ventricular dilatation, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage (N).
cAny high-frequency (B), any mechanical ventilation (J), or mechanical ventilation days (C, F, I, Q, S, and T).
dPerforated necrotizing enterocolitis (A), necrotizing enterocolitis stages 2 to 3 (C and F), surgical or radiograph diagnosed (J), bowel perforation or necrotizing enterocolitis (T), or not specified (H, L, and N).
eOxygen requirement at 36 weeks’ gestational age (B, D, F, G, J, L, M, N, O, and R) or not specified (H and P).
fMore than 24 hours before labor (G) or not specified (A and F).
gStage 3 to 4 (I, K, and L), at least stage 3 with laser therapy (F), or stage 4 to 5 or treatment with cryotherapy or laser therapy (O).
hIncrease in head circumference from discharge to 5 years (I), occipitofrontal circumference 7-year centile (Q), or increase in head circumference less than 6 mm per week (T).