Accepted for Publication: February 19, 2015.
Published Online: June 8, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0504.
Study concept and design: Kribs, Roll, Göpel, Wieg, Groneck, Teig, Stützer, Herting, Roth.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kribs, Roll, Göpel, Wieg, Groneck, Laux, Teig, Hoehn, Böhm, Welzing, Vochem, Hoppenz, Bührer, Mehler, Franklin, Stöhr, Herting, Roth.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kribs, Wieg, Groneck, Laux, Teig, Mehler, Franklin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kribs, Roll, Göpel, Wieg, Teig, Hoehn, Böhm, Welzing, Vochem Hoppenz, Bührer, Stützer, Stöhr, Herting, Roth.
Statistical analysis: Wieg, Mehler, Stützer, Franklin.
Obtained funding: Kribs.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kribs, Roll, Göpel, Wieg, Laux, Teig, Welzing, Vochem, Bührer, Stöhr, Herting, Roth.
Study supervision: Kribs, Teig, Hoehn, Welzing, Bührer, Stöhr, Herting, Roth.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Kribs has received speaking fees and travel grants from the surfactant-producing companies Abbott, Chiesi, and Lyomark. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The NINSAPP study was sponsored by the University of Cologne and supported by grants from the German Ministry of Research and Technology (BMBF FZK 01KG0806) and Köln Fortune (project 120/2008 and 223/2011). The study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grants FZK 01KG0806 and 01ER0805) and Köln Fortune (project grants 120/2008 and 223/2011). The trial was included in the prospective cluster-randomized ADAMON22 trial, funded by the German Federal Research Ministry (FZK 01EZ0876; http://www.adamon.de).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The following hospitals and investigators participated in the Nonintubated Surfactant Application (NINSAPP) trial, listed according to the numbers of infants enrolled: Department of Neonatology, Children’s Hospital University of Cologne: Angela Kribs, MD, Katrin Mehler, MD, Bernhard Roth, MD, Andre Oberthür, MD, Ruth Klein, MD, Frank Eifinger, MD, Anne Vierzig, MD, and Christoph Hünseler, MD. University of Cologne, Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology: Hartmut Stützer, PhD, and Jeremy Franklin, PhD. Center for Clinical Studies, Cologne: Andreas Stöhr, PhD; Ulrike Zettelmeyer, MA, Stefanie Koch, Susanne Staub, and Hao Pham, MD. Department ofNeonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Witten-Herdecke, Vest Children's Hospital: Claudia Roll, MD, Wolfgang Pielemeier, MD, Sirma Supcun, MD, Patrizia Kutz, MD, Barbara Steich, MD, Nikola Lueg, MD, Uta Schuermann, MD. and Friedemann Hornschuh, MD. University of Lübeck, Children´s Hospital: Wolfgang Göpel, MD, Egbert Herting, MD, Meike Bendiks, MD, Guido Stichenoth, MD, Alexander Herz, MD, and Christoph Härtel, MD. Children´s Hospital Aschaffenburg: Christian Wieg, MD, Oliver Stangl, MD, Christina Boesche, MD, and Katja Moser, MD. Children´s Hospital Leverkusen: Peter Groneck, MD, Peter Jahn, MD, Armin Stach, MD, Beatrix Middendorf, MD, Julia Bode, MD, Isabel Hennes, MD, Jens Mütze, MD, Nina Pluempe, MD, and Adam Piskon, MD. Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Hamburg: Reinhard Laux, Barbara Liedtke, Astrid Hendel. Ruhr-University Bochum, Children's Hospital: Norbert Teig, MD, and Almut Weitkämper, MD. University Hospital Duesseldorf, General Pediatrics: Thomas Hoehn, MD, Berit Hadzik, MD, Klaus Lohmeier, MD, and Hans Stannigel, MD. Children´s Hospital Siegen: Rainer Burghard, MD, Wolfgang Böhm, MD, Markus Pingel, MD, Mechthild Hubert, MD, Miroslav Novotny, MD, and Moritz Vogel, MD. Department of Neonatology, University of Bonn: Lars Welzing, MD, and Andreas Müller, MD. Olgahospital Stuttgart: Matthias Vochem, MD; Ulrich Pohlmann, MD; Marlene Westmeier, MD, Patrick Neuberger, MD, Thomas Strahleck, MD, and Martin Wagner, MD. Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine, Children's Hospital, Cologne: Marc Hoppenz, MD, and Thomas Papst, MD. Department of Neonatology, Charité University Medical Center Berlin: Christoph Bührer, MD, Lars Garten, MD, Florian Guthmann, MD, Dieter Hüseman, MD, Monika Berns, MD, Christoph Czernik, MD, Christof Dame, MD, and Andrea Loui, MD.