Accepted for Publication: September 11, 2014.
Published Online: February 16, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3275.
Study concept and design: Mikolajczyk, Lindemann, Garbe.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mikolajczyk, Horn, Schmedt, Lindemann, Garbe.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mikolajczyk, Horn, Schmedt, Langner, Garbe.
Statistical analysis: Horn, Langner.
Obtained funding: Garbe.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lindemann.
Study supervision: Mikolajczyk.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Garbe has been a consultant to Bayer-Schering, Nycomed, GlaxoSmithKline, Schwabe, Teva, and Novartis. Dr Garbe runs and Mr Schmedt and Ms Lindemann work for a department that occasionally performs studies for pharmaceutical companies, including Bayer, Celgene, GlaxoSmithKline, Mundipharma, Novartis, Sanofi, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, and STADA. At the time of study, Dr Mikolajczyk, Mr Horn, and Ms Lindemann were employees of this department.
Funding/Support: The study was funded by grant 01ER0817 from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: The authors are grateful to the statutory health insurance providers that provided data for this study, namely, the AOK Bremen/Bremerhaven, the hkk, the Techniker Krankenkasse, and the DAK-Gesundheit. They were not compensated for their contributions.