Although genetic screening for type 1 diabetes mellitus cannot be done, testing whether infants have an increased risk for type 1 diabetes is feasible. Such screening has a sensitivity of approximately 70% for identifying those at risk of developing type 1 diabetes before age 15 years but a positive predictive value of only 3% to 7%. In this study from Finland in which parents were told of their newborns' risk for diabetes, families of 523 high-risk babies were compared with 506 families of low-risk babies 1 to 2 weeks after learning the risk status. The amount of anxiety in the 2 sets of families was similar, and more than 90% were grateful to know the risk status. Increased anxiety was related to other life stress.