Accepted for Publication: October 21, 2014.
Published Online: January 5, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3040.
Study concept and design: Barros, Papageorghiou, Victora, Noble, Iams, Goldenberg, Kramer, Jaffer, Bertino, Gravett, Altman, Kennedy, Villar.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Barros, Papageorghiou, Victora, Pang, Iams, Cheikh Ismail, Lambert, Carvalho, Conde-Agudelo, Ohuma, Purwar, Frederick, Bhutta, Kennedy, Villar.
Drafting of the manuscript: Barros, Papageorghiou, Victora, Carvalho, Purwar, Kennedy, Villar.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Barros, Papageorghiou, Victora, Noble, Pang, Iams, Cheikh Ismail, Goldenberg, Lambert, Kramer, Conde-Agudelo, Jaffer, Bertino, Gravett, Altman, Ohuma, Frederick, Bhutta, Kennedy.
Statistical analysis: Barros, Victora, Kramer, Ohuma, Bhutta, Villar.
Obtained funding: Noble, Kennedy, Villar.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Barros, Papageorghiou, Noble, Pang, Cheikh Ismail, Lambert, Carvalho, Conde-Agudelo, Jaffer, Gravett.
Study supervision: Barros, Iams, Cheikh Ismail, Jaffer, Bertino, Altman, Purwar, Villar.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by INTERGROWTH-21st grant 49038 from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to the University of Oxford.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: Members of the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) and its committees included the following.
Scientific Advisory Committee: M. Katz (chair from January 2011), M. K. Bhan, C. Garza, S. Zaidi, A. Langer, P. M. Rothwell (from February 2011), and D. Weatherall (chair until December 2010).
Steering Committee: Z. A. Bhutta (chair), J. Villar (principal investigator [PI]), S. Kennedy (project director), D. G. Altman, F. C. Barros, E. Bertino, F. Burton, M. Carvalho, L. Cheikh Ismail, W. C. Chumlea, M. G. Gravett, Y. A. Jaffer, A. Lambert, P. Lumbiganon, J. A. Noble, R. Y. Pang, A. T. Papageorghiou, M. Purwar, J. Rivera, and C. Victora.
Executive Committee: J. Villar (chair), D. G. Altman, Z. A. Bhutta, L. Cheikh Ismail, S. Kennedy, A. Lambert, J. A. Noble, and A. T. Papageorghiou.
Study Coordinating Unit: J. Villar (head), S. Kennedy, L. Cheikh Ismail, A. Lambert, A. T. Papageorghiou, M. Shorten, L. Hoch (until May 2011), H. E. Knight (until August 2011), E. O. Ohuma (from September 2010), C. Cosgrove (from July 2011), and I. Blakey (from March 2011).
Data Management and Analysis Group: D. G. Altman (head), F. Roseman, N. Kunnawar, S. H. Gu, J. H. Wang, M. H. Wu, M. Domingues, P. Gilli, L. Juodvirsiene, L. Hoch (until May 2011), N. Musee (until June 2011), H. Al-Jabri (until October 2010), S. Waller (until June 2011), C. Cosgrove (from July 2011), D. Muninzwa (from October 2011), E. O. Ohuma (from September 2010), D. Yellappan (from November 2010), A. Carter (from July 2011), D. Reade (from June 2012), and R. Miller (from June 2012).
Ultrasonography Group: A. T. Papageorghiou (head), L. Salomon (senior external advisor), A. Leston, A. Mitidieri, F. Al-Aamri, W. Paulsene, J. Sande, W. K. S. Al-Zadjali, C. Batiuk, S. Bornemeier, M. Carvalho, M. Dighe, P. Gaglioti, N. Jacinta, S. Jaiswal, J. A. Noble, K. Oas, M. Oberto, E. Olearo, M. G. Owende, J. Shah, S. Sohoni, T. Todros, M. Venkataraman, S. Vinayak, L. Wang, D. Wilson, Q. Q. Wu, S. Zaidi, Y. Zhang, P. Chamberlain (until September 2012), D. Danelon (until July 2010), I. Sarris (until June 2010), J. Dhami (until July 2011), C. Ioannou (until February 2012), C. L. Knight (from October 2010), R. Napolitano (from July 2011), S. Wanyonyi (from May 2012), C. Pace (from January 2011), and V. Mkrtychyan (from June 2012).
Anthropometry Group: L. Cheikh Ismail (head), W. C. Chumlea (senior external advisor), F. Al-Habsi, Z. A. Bhutta, A. Carter, M. Alija, J. M. Jimenez-Bustos, J. Kizidio, F. Puglia, N. Kunnawar, H. Liu, S. Lloyd, D. Mota, R. Ochieng, C. Rossi, M. Sanchez Luna, Y. J. Shen, H. E. Knight (until August 2011), D. A. Rocco (from June 2012), and I. O. Frederick (from June 2012).
Neonatal Group: Z. A. Bhutta (head), E. Albernaz, M. Batra, B. A. Bhat, E. Bertino, P. Di Nicola, F. Giuliani, I. Rovelli, K. McCormick, R. Ochieng, R. Y. Pang, V. Paul, V. Rajan, A. Wilkinson, and A. Varalda (from September 2012).
Environmental Health Group: B. Eskenazi (head), L. A. Corra, H. Dolk, J. Golding, A. Matijasevich, T. de Wet, J. J. Zhang, A. Bradman, D. Finkton, O. Burnham, and F. Farhi.
Participating Countries and Local Investigators:
Brazil: F. C. Barros (PI), M. Domingues, S. Fonseca, A. Leston, A. Mitidieri, D. Mota, I. K. Sclowitz, and M. F. da Silveira.
China: R. Y. Pang (PI), Y. P. He, Y. Pan, Y. J. Shen, M. H. Wu, Q. Q. Wu, J. H. Wang, Y. Yuan, and Y. Zhang.
India: M. Purwar (PI), A. Choudhary, S. Choudhary, S. Deshmukh, D. Dongaonkar, M. Ketkar, V. Khedikar, N. Kunnawar, C. Mahorkar, I. Mulik, K. Saboo, C. Shembekar, A. Singh, V. Taori, K. Tayade, and A. Somani.
Italy: E. Bertino (PI), P. Di Nicola, M. Frigerio, G. Gilli, P. Gilli, M. Giolito, F. Giuliani, M. Oberto, L. Occhi, C. Rossi, I. Rovelli, F. Signorile, and T. Todros.
Kenya: M. Carvalho (PI), J. Kizidio, R. Ochieng, J. Shah, W. Stones, S. Vinayak, N. Musee (until June 2011), C. Kisiang’ani (until July 2011), and D. Muninzwa (from August 2011). M. Carvalho and W. Stones are coprincipal investigators.
Oman: Y. A. Jaffer (PI), J. Al-Abri, J. Al-Abduwani, F. M. Al-Habsi, H. Al-Lawatiya, B. Al-Rashidiya, W. K. S. Al-Zadjali, F. R. Juangco, M. Venkataraman, H. Al-Jabri (until October 2010), and D. Yellappan (from November 2010).
United Kingdom: S. Kennedy (PI), L. Cheikh Ismail, A. T. Papageorghiou, F. Roseman, A. Lambert, S. Lloyd, R. Napolitano (from July 2011), C. Ioannou (until February 2012), and I. Sarris (until June 2010).
United States: M. G. Gravett (PI), C. Batiuk, M. Batra, S. Bornemeier, M. Dighe, K. Oas, W. Paulsene, D. Wilson, I. O. Frederick, H. F. Andersen, S. E. Abbott, A. A. Carter, H. Algren, D. A. Rocco, T. K. Sorensen, D. Enquobahrie, and S. Waller (until June 2011).
Additional Contributions: We thank the health authorities in Pelotas, Brazil; Beijing, China; Nagpur, India; Turin, Italy; Nairobi, Kenya; Muscat, Oman; Oxford, England, and Seattle, Washington, who facilitated the project by allowing participation of these study sites as collaborating centers. We are grateful to Philips Medical Systems, which provided the ultrasound equipment and technical assistance throughout the project. We also thank MedSciNet UK Ltd for setting up the INTERGROWTH-21st website and for the development, maintenance, and support of the online data management system. We thank the parents and infants who participated in the studies and the more than 200 members of the research teams who made the implementation of this project possible. The participating hospitals included Brazil, Pelotas (Hospital Miguel Piltcher, Hospital São Francisco de Paula, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Pelotas, and Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal de Pelotas); China, Beijing (Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Shunyi Maternal and Child Health Centre, and Shunyi General Hospital); India, Nagpur (Ketkar Hospital, Avanti Institute of Cardiology Private Limited, Avantika Hospital, Gurukrupa Maternity Hospital, Mulik Hospital and Research Centre, Nandlok Hospital, Om Women’s Hospital, Renuka Hospital and Maternity Home, Saboo Hospital, BrajmonhanTaori Memorial Hospital, and Somani Nursing Home); Kenya, Nairobi (Aga Khan University Hospital, MP Shah Hospital, and Avenue Hospital); Italy, Turin (Ospedale Infantile Regina Margherita Sant’ Anna and Azienda Ospedaliera Ordine Mauriziano); Oman, Muscat (Khoula Hospital, Royal Hospital, Wattayah Obstetrics and Gynaecology Poly Clinic, Wattayah Health Centre, Ruwi Health Centre, Al-Ghoubra Health Centre, and Al-Khuwair Health Centre); Oxford, England (John Radcliffe Hospital); and Seattle, Washington (University of Washington Hospital, Swedish Hospital, and Providence Everett Hospital).