Accepted for Publication: July 31, 2014.
Published Online: November 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1900.
Study concept and design: Cunningham, Zimmerman, Blow, Walton.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Cunningham, Carter, Ranney, Zimmerman, Booth, Goldstick, Walton.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cunningham, Carter, Ranney, Zimmerman, Booth, Walton.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Carter, Booth, Goldstick.
Obtained funding: Cunningham, Zimmerman, Blow, Walton.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ranney, Blow.
Study supervision: Cunningham, Walton.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant R01 024646 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (principal investigator, Dr Cunningham) and in part by grant T32 AA007477-23 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and grant 1R49CE002099 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented as an abstract at the Pediatric Academic Society Meeting; May 5, 2014; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Additional Contributions: Wendi Mohl, BS, and Jessica Roche, MPH, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, assisted in manuscript preparation. Linping Duan, MS, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, assisted with statistical analysis. They received no additional compensation for their work. We thank the patients and medical staff of Hurley Medical Center for their support of this project.