Accepted for Publication: July 11, 2014.
Published Online: October 20, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1619.
Study concept and design: Elks, Heude, Dunger, Ibáñez, Charles, Ong.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Elks, Heude, de Zegher, Barton, Clément, Inskip, Koudou, Cooper, Ibáñez, Charles, Ong.
Drafting of the manuscript: Elks, Dunger, Ong.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Elks, Heude, de Zegher, Barton, Clément, Inskip, Koudou, Cooper, Ibáñez, Charles.
Statistical analysis: Elks, Barton, Koudou.
Obtained funding: Heude, Dunger, Ibáñez, Charles, Ong.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Inskip, Koudou.
Study supervision: Heude, de Zegher, Cooper, Charles, Ong.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was funded by a Collaborative Research Grant from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/2 and MC_U106179472). Dr de Zegher is a clinical investigator supported by the Clinical Research Council of the Leuven University Hospitals. Dr Ibáñez is a clinical investigator of the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. The Barcelona study was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, and by the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, Madrid, Spain (PI11/0443). The Cambridge Baby Growth Study was supported by the European Union, the World Cancer Research Foundation International, the Medical Research Council, the Newlife Foundation, and the National Institute of Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. The EDEN mother-child cohort was supported by grants from Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, French Ministry of Research, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, the French Ministry of Health, French Agency for Occupational and Environmental Health Safety, French National Institute for Population Health Surveillance, University of Paris–Sud, French National Institute for Health Education, Nestlé, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale, French Speaking Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolism, and French Research Agency. Funding for the components of the Southampton Women’s Survey contributing to this research came from the Medical Research Council, the University of Southampton, the Dunhill Medical Trust, British Heart Foundation, Arthritis Research United Kingdom, and the UK Food Standards Agency.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions:Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS): We are grateful to the children and parents who participated in this study, as well as to the staff and facilities at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility (Addenbrooke’s Clinical Research Centre), Cambridge, England, for assistance in infant assessments. We thank the CBGS coinvestigators Ieuan Hughes, MD, and Carlo Acerini, MD, and pediatric research nurses Suzanne Smith, RSCN, Anne-Marie Wardell, RSCN, and Karen Forbes, RSCN (Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge). Southampton Women's Survey: We thank the general practitioners and midwives in Southampton, England, for their support. We are grateful to the research nurses and other staff of the Southampton Women’s Survey for all of their work in recruiting and interviewing the participants and processing the data and samples. We also thank the women of Southampton and their children who gave their time to take part in the study. EDEN mother-child cohort: We thank the families participating in this study and the midwife research assistants for their support. EDEN data were collected with contributions of the EDEN mother-child cohort study group including Isabella Annesi-Maesano, MD, PhD, Jonathan Bernard, PhD, Jérémie Botton, PhD, Marie-Aline Charles, MD, MPH, Patricia Dargent-Molina, PhD, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, PhD, Pierre Ducimetière, PhD, Maria de Agostini, PhD, Bernard Foliguet, MD, PhD, Anne Forhan, MSc, Xavier Fritel, MD, PhD, Alice Germa, PhD, Valérie Goua, MD, Régis Hankard, MD, PhD, Barbara Heude, PhD, Monique Kaminski, PhD, Béatrice Larroque, MD, PhD (deceased), Nathalie Lelong, MSc, Johanna Lepeule, PhD, Guillaume Magnin, MD, PhD, Laetitia Marchand, MSc, Cathy Nabet, PhD, Fabrice Pierre, MD, PhD, Rémy Slama, PhD, Marie-Josephe Saurel-Cubizolles, PhD, Michel Schweitzer, MD, PhD, and Olivier Thiebaugeorges, MD, PhD, MPH. We are grateful to Véronique Pelloux for EDEN DNA storage, amplification, and handling. The contributors received no financial compensation.