At baseline, only one of the questionnaire items differed as a function of assignment to treatment order. Parents of children in the placebo-piracetam group reported greater feelings of isolation (14.1 ± 0.9) than did parents in the piracetam-placebo group (9.8 ± 0.9; F1,16 = 11.61, P<.01, η2 = 0.42). In the comparison of piracetam and placebo scores, 6 items from the parent and teacher questionnaires reached or approached significance (Figure 2C). For parents, these indicated improvements in leadership (FACES III: F1,13 = 4.45, P<.055, η2 = 0.26), fewer thought problems (Child Behavior Check List: F1,15 = 4.93, P<.04, η2 = 0.25), and poorer attention while taking piracetam (Children's Behavior Questionnaire: F1,15 = 5.43, P<.03, η2 = 0.27). Teachers indicated that the children seemed happier (Teacher's Report Form: F1,11 = 8.04, P<.02, η2 = 0.42), had fewer internalizing problems (Teacher's Report Form: F1,13 = 8.65, P<.01, η2 = 0.40), and had fewer total problems while taking piracetam (F1,13 = 5.01, P<.04, η2 = 0.28). We note, however, that all of these differences, although statistically significant, were small from a clinical perspective. For example, on the parent questionnaire, thought problem scores below 67 are not considered clinically significant. Changes of the magnitude found here would not be interpreted by health care professionals as indicative of either improvement or decrease on the factor. Scores while taking piracetam and placebo were within the reference range, at 56.3 ± 1.5 and 60.1 ± 1.6, respectively. Similarly, for teachers, the total problem scores were in the clinically relevant range (>60) at 62.1 ± 2.7 for the piracetam arm and 64.4 ± 2.6 for the placebo arm.