Accepted for Publication: April 30, 2014.
Published Online: August 11, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.953.
Study concept and design: Kaufman, Blackman, Sinkin.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kaufman, Blackman, Conaway.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kaufman, Conaway.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kaufman, Blackman, Sinkin.
Statistical analysis: Conaway.
Obtained funding: Kaufman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kaufman, Blackman.
Study supervision: Kaufman, Sinkin.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The study was funded in part by grants from the University of Virginia Institute of Quality and Patient Safety, Cardinal Health Foundation, and University of Virginia Children’s Hospital Grant’s Program (Dr Kaufman).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the neonatal intensive care nurses and other health care professionals at the University of Virginia who were instrumental in conducting this study.