0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
The Pediatric Forum |

In Reply

Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe, PhD; Carrie L. Mariner, MA
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998;152(3):309. doi:.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Extract

In reply

Miller is correct that causality can be inferred only from randomized experimental design. Statistical controls in quasi-experimental design only rule out the alternative causal explanations specifically controlled for in the analyses. Accordingly, while we presented our results as being consistent or inconsistent with causal hypotheses, there is no instance in our report in which we explicitly claim that spanking causes children's aggression.

Miller is also correct that 3 points of measurement permit one to rule out more alternative explanations than 2 permit. Nevertheless, our study and the study by Straus et al are the first longitudinal investigations of physical punishment by parents to rule out the autoregressive effect of child misbehavior (ie, the stability of children's aggression over time) and thus, the child effect on parent discipline. If representative randomized studies or 3-wave longitudinal studies with appropriate controls existed, we certainly would rely more heavily on them. In their absence, studies like ours with an intermediate level of causal confidence are important to bridge the gap until more methodologically stringent research has been conducted. While "measurement at only two points in time is a less-than-ideal design...two points are certainly much better than one."1

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();