Accepted for Publication: April 24, 2014.
Published Online: July 28, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.774.
Study concept and design: Levy, Sherritt, Van Hook, Shrier.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Levy, Sherritt, Ziemnik, Shrier.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Weiss, Sherritt, Spalding, Van Hook, Shrier.
Statistical analysis: Levy, Sherritt, Ziemnik.
Obtained funding: Levy, Van Hook.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sherritt, Ziemnik, Spalding, Van Hook.
Study supervision: Levy, Weiss, Sherritt, Shrier.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants 5K23DA019570-05S1 (Dr Levy), U10DA15831 (Dr Weiss), and K24DA022288 (Dr Weiss) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Danielle Murphy, BA, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, Denver, Colorado (paid research assistant), Roman Pavlyuk, BA, Division of Developmental Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (paid research assistant), Sakina Sojar, BS, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York (volunteer research assistant), and Emily Axel, BA, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio (volunteer research assistant), assisted with data collection.