Accepted for Publication: February 25, 2014.
Published Online: July 7, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.361.
Study concept and design: Lee, Dayan, Holmes, Kuppermann.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Lee, Monroe, Bachman, Glass, Mahajan, Cooper, Stanley, Miskin, Holmes, Kuppermann.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lee, Kuppermann.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Lee, Miskin, Kuppermann.
Obtained funding: Kuppermann.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kuppermann.
Study supervision: Lee, Bachman, Glass, Mahajan, Cooper, Stanley, Dayan, Holmes, Kuppermann.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant R40MC02461 from the Health Resources and Services Administration/Maternal and Child Health Bureau (HRSA/MCHB) Division of Research, Education and Training (DRTE) and the Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) Program. The PECARN is supported by the HRSA/MCHB/EMSC Program through the following cooperative agreements: U03MC00001, U03MC00003, U03MC00006, U03MC00007, U03MC00008, U03MC22684, and U03MC22685. The PECARN is supported by cooperative agreements U03MC00001, U03MC00003, U03MC00006, U03MC00007, U03MC00008, U03MC22684, and U03MC22685 from the EMSC program of the MCHB/HRSA.
Role of the Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The members of the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Working Group of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) are as follows: Atlantic Health System/Morristown Memorial Hospital: Michael Gerardi, MD; Bellevue Hospital Center: Michael Tunik, MD, and James Tsung, MD; Calvert Memorial Hospital: Kraig Melville, MD; Children’s Hospital–Boston: Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH; Children’s Hospital of Buffalo: Kathleen Lillis, MD; Children’s Hospital of Michigan: Prashant V. Mahajan, MD, MPH, MBA; Children’s Hospital of New York–Presbyterian: Peter S. Dayan, MD, MSc; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: Frances Nadel, MD, MSCE; Children’s Memorial Hospital: Elizabeth Powell, MD, MPH; Children’s National Medical Center: Shireen Atabaki, MD, MPH, and Kathleen Brown, MD; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center: Todd F. Glass, MD, MS; DeVos Children’s Hospital: John Hoyle, MD; Harlem Hospital Center: Arthur Cooper, MD; Holy Cross Hospital: Elizabeth Jacobs, MD; Howard County Medical Center: David Monroe, MD; Hurley Medical Center: Dominic Borgialli, DO; Medical College of Wisconsin/Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin: Marc Gorelick, MD, and Subhankar Bandyopadhyay, MD; St Barnabas Health Care System: Michael C. Bachman, MD, and Neil Schamban, MD; SUNY–Upstate Medical Center: James Callahan, MD; University of California Davis Medical Center: Nathan Kuppermann, MD, MPH, and James F. Holmes, MD, MPH; University of Maryland: Richard Lichenstein, MD; University of Michigan: Rachel M. Stanley, MD, MHSA; University of Rochester: Mohamed Badawy, MD, and Lynn Babcock-Cimpello, MD, MS; University of Utah/Primary Children’s Medical Center: Jeff Schunk, MD; and Washington University/St Louis Children’s Hospital: Kimberly Quayle, MD, and David Jaffe.
We acknowledge the efforts of the following individuals participating in the PECARN at the time this study was initiated:
PECARN Steering Committee: N. Kuppermann, chair; E. Alpern, J. Chamberlain, J. M. Dean, M. Gerardi, J. Goepp, M. Gorelick, J. Hoyle, D. Jaffe, C. Johns, N. Levick, P. Mahajan, R. Maio, K. Melville, S. Miller (deceased), D. Monroe, R. Ruddy, R. Stanley, D. Treloar, M. Tunik, and A. Walker. MCHB/EMSC liaisons: D. Kavanaugh and H. Park.
Central Data Management and Coordinating Center (CDMCC): M. Dean, R. Holubkov, S. Knight, and A. Donaldson.
Data Analysis and Management Subcommittee (DAMS): J. Chamberlain, chair; M. Brown, H. Corneli, J. Goepp, R. Holubkov, P. Mahajan, K. Melville, E. Stremski, and M. Tunik.
Grants and Publications Subcommittee (GAPS): M. Gorelick, chair; E. Alpern, J. M. Dean, G. Foltin, J. Joseph, S. Miller (deceased), F. Moler, R. Stanley, and S. Teach.
Protocol Concept Review and Development Subcommittee (PCRADS): D. Jaffe, chair; K. Brown, A. Cooper, J. M. Dean, C. Johns, R. Maio, N. C. Mann, D. Monroe, K. Shaw, D. Teitelbaum, and D. Treloar.
Quality Assurance Subcommittee (QAS): R. Stanley, chair; D. Alexander, J. Brown, M. Gerardi, M. Gregor, R. Holubkov, K. Lillis, B. Nordberg, R. Ruddy, M. Shults, and A. Walker.
Safety and Regulatory Affairs Subcommittee (SRAS): N. Levick, chair; J. Brennan, J. Brown, J. M. Dean, J. Hoyle, R. Maio, R. Ruddy, W. Schalick, T. Singh, and J. Wright.
Additional Contributions: For their dedicated and diligent work, we thank Sally Jo Zuspan, RN, MSN, for her role in helping to organize the study, and Rene Enriquez, BS, for his assistance with data management (PECARN Data Center, University of Utah). They did not receive compensation from a funding sponsor for their contributions. We also thank the research coordinators in PECARN, without whose dedication and hard work this study would not have been possible, and all the clinicians around PECARN who enrolled children in this study.