Accepted for Publication: February 5, 2014.
Published Online: June 16, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.307.
Study concept and design: Morriss, Bell, Colaizy, Hintz, Hamrick, Jones, Higgins.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Saha, Bell, Colaizy, Stoll, Hintz, Shankaran, Vohr, Hamrick, Pappas, Laptook, Van Meurs, Sánchez, Hale, Newman, Das, Higgins.
Drafting of the manuscript: Morriss, Saha, Sánchez.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Morriss, Saha, Das.
Obtained funding: Bell, Stoll, Hintz, Shankaran, Carlo, Sánchez.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stoll, Jones, Higgins.
Study supervision: Hintz, Shankaran, Hale, Das, Higgins.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The National Institutes of Health, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) provided grant support for the Neonatal Research Network’s Generic Database Study through cooperative agreements.
Role of the Sponsors: The NICHD staff had input into the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The NCRR and NCATS staff did not have input into this study.
Group Information: The following investigators, in addition to those listed as authors, participated in this study: Neonatal Research Network Steering Committee Chairs: Alan H. Jobe, MD, PhD, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati (2003-2006), and Michael S. Caplan, MD, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (2006-2011). Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (U10 HD27904): William Oh, MD; Robert T. Burke, MD, MPH; Bonnie E. Stephens, MD; Yvette Yatchmink, MD; Barbara Alksninis, RNC, PNP; Angelita M. Hensman, RN, BSN; Teresa M. Leach, Med, CAES; Martha R. Leonard, BA, BS; Lucy Noel; Rachel A. Vogt, MD; and Victoria E. Watson, MS, CAS. Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital (U10 HD21364 and M01 RR80): Michele C. Walsh, MD, MS; Avroy A. Fanaroff, MD; Deanne E. Wilson-Costello, MD; Bonnie S. Siner, RN; and Harriet G. Friedman, MA. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University Hospital, and Good Samaritan Hospital (U10 HD27853 and M01 RR8084): Kurt Schibler, MD; Edward F. Donovan, MD; Kate Bridges, MD; Jean J. Steichen, MD; Kimberly Yolton, PhD; Barbara Alexander, RN; Estelle E. Fischer, MHSA, MBA; Cathy Grisby, BSN, CCRC; Marcia Worley Mersmann, RN; Holly L. Mincey, RN, BSN; Jody Hessling, RN; Teresa L. Gratton, PA; Lenora Denise Jackson, CRC; and Kristin Kirker, CRC. Duke University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Alamance Regional Medical Center, and Durham Regional Hospital (U10 HD40492 and M01 RR30): Ronald N. Goldberg, MD; C. Michael Cotten, MD, MHS; Ricki F. Goldstein, MD; Kathy J. Auten, MSHS; Kimberley A. Fisher, PhD, FNP-BC, IBCLC; Katherine A. Foy, RN; Kathryn E. Gustafson, PhD; and Melody B. Lohmeyer, RN, MSN. Emory University, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory University Hospital Midtown (U10 HD27851 and M01 RR39): David P. Carlton, MD; and Ira Adams-Chapman, MD. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Linda L. Wright, MD; Elizabeth M. McClure, MEd; and Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA. Indiana University, University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children, and Wishard Health Services (U10 HD27856 and M01 RR750): Brenda B. Poindexter, MD, MS; James A. Lemons, MD; Anna M. Dusick, MD; Carolyn Lytle, MD, MPH; Lon G. Bohnke, MS; Greg Eaken, PhD; Faithe Hamer, BS; Dianne E. Herron, RN; Lucy C. Miller, RN, BSN, CCRC; Heike M. Minnich, PsyD, HSPP; Leslie Richard, RN; and Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN, CCRC. RTI International (U10 HD36790): W. Kenneth Poole, PhD; Dennis Wallace, PhD; Jamie E. Newman, PhD, MPH; Jeanette O’Donnell Auman, BS; Margaret M. Crawford, BS, CCRP; Betty K. Hastings; Elizabeth M. McClure, MEd; Carolyn M. Petrie Huitema, MS, CCRP; and Kristin M. Zaterka-Baxter, RN, BSN, CCRP. Stanford University, California Pacific Medical Center, Dominican Hospital, El Camino Hospital, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (U10 HD27880 and M01 RR70): David K. Stevenson, MD; Marian M. Adams, MD; Charles E. Ahlfors, MD; M. Bethany Ball, BS, CCRC; Joan M. Baran, PhD; Barbara Bentley, PhD; Lori E. Bond, PhD; Ginger K. Brudos, PhD; Alexis S. Davis, MD, MS; Maria Elena DeAnda, PhD; Anne M. DeBattista, RN, PNP; Barry E. Fleisher, MD; Jean G. Kohn, MD, MPH; Julie C. Lee-Ancajas, PhD; Andrew W. Palmquist, RN; Melinda S. Proud, RCP; Renee P. Pyle, PhD; Dharshi Sivakumar, MD; Robert D. Stebbins, MD; and Nicholas H. St. John, PhD. Tufts Medical Center, Floating Hospital for Children (U10 HD53119 and M01 RR54): Ivan D. Frantz III, MD; Elisabeth C. McGowan, MD; Brenda L. MacKinnon, RNC; Ellen Nylen, RN, BSN; Anne Furey, MPH; Cecelia Sibley, PT, MHA; and Ana Brussa, MS, OTR/L. University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children’s Hospital of Alabama (U10 HD34216 and M01 RR32): Namasivayam Ambalavanan, MD; Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, MD, MPH; Kathleen G. Nelson, MD; Kirstin J. Bailey, PhD; Fred J. Biasini, PhD; Stephanie A. Chopko, PhD; Monica V. Collins, RN, BSN, MaEd; Shirley S. Cosby, RN, BSN; Mary Beth Moses, PT, MS, PCS; Vivien A. Phillips, RN, BSN; Julie Preskitt, MSOT, MPH; Richard V. Rector, PhD; and Sally Whitley, MA, OTR-L, FAOTA. University of California –San Diego Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns (U10 HD40461): Neil N. Finer, MD; Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD; Yvonne E. Vaucher, MD, MPH; Paul R. Wozniak, MD; Kathy Arnell, RNC; Renee Bridge, RN; Clarence Demetrio, RN; Martha G. Fuller, RN, MSN; and Wade Rich, BSHS, RRT. University of Iowa Children's Hospital (U10 HD53109 and M01 RR59): John A. Widness, MD; Michael J. Acarregui, MD; Karen J. Johnson, RN, BSN; and Diane L. Eastman, RN, CPNP, MA. University of Miami, Holtz Children’s Hospital (U10 HD21397 and M01 RR16587): Charles R. Bauer, MD; Shahnaz Duara, MD; Ruth Everett-Thomas, RN, MSN; Amy Mur Worth, RN, MS; Mary Allison, RN; Alexis N. Diaz, BA; Elaine E. Mathews, RN; Kasey Hamlin-Smith, PhD; Lissa Jean-Gilles, BA; Maria Calejo, MS; Silvia M. Frade Eguaras, BA; Silvia Fajardo-Hiriart, MD; Yamiley C. Gideon, BA; Michelle Harwood Berkovits, PhD; Alexandra Stoerger, BA; Andrea Garcia, MA; Helena Pierre, BA; Georgette Roder, BSW; and Arielle Riguad, MD. University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (U10 HD27881, U10 HD53089, and M01 RR997): Kristi L. Watterberg, MD; Andrea Freeman Duncan, MD, MScr; Janell Fuller, MD; Robin K. Ohls, MD; Lu-Ann Papile, MD; Conra Backstrom Lacy, RN; Sandra Brown, RN, BSN; Jean R. Lowe, PhD; and Rebecca Montman, RN, BSN. University of Rochester Medical Center, Golisano Children’s Hospital (U10 HD40521, M01 RR44, and NCRR UL1 024160): Dale L. Phelps, MD; Ronnie Guillet, MD, PhD; Gary J. Myers, MD; Linda J. Reubens, RN, CCRC, Erica Burnell, RN; Mary Rowan, RN; Cassandra A. Horihan, MS; Julie Babish Johnson, MSW; Diane Hust, MS, RN, CS; Rosemary L. Jensen; Emily Kushner, MA; Joan Merzbach, LMSW; Kelly Yost, PhD; and Lauren Zwetsch, RN, MS, PNP. University of Tennessee Health Science Center (U10 HD21415): Sheldon B. Korones, MD; Henrietta S. Bada, MD; Tina Hudson, RN, BSN; Marilyn Williams, LCSW; and Kimberly Yolton, PhD. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Parkland Health & Hospital System and Children’s Medical Center Dallas (U10 HD40689 and M01 RR633): Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD; Walid A. Salhab, MD; Luc P. Brion, MD; R. Sue Broyles, MD; Roy J. Heyne, MD; Sally S. Adams, MS, RN, CPNP; P. Jeannette Burchfield, RN, BSN; Cristin Dooley, PhD, LSSP; Alicia Guzman; Gaynelle Hensley, RN; Elizabeth T. Heyne, MS, MA, PA-C, PsyD; Jackie F. Hickman, RN; Melissa H. Leps, RN; Linda A. Madden, BSN, RN, CPNP; Nancy A. Miller, RN; Janet S. Morgan, RN; Susie Madison, RN; Lizette E. Torres, RN; Cathy Twell Boatman, MS, CIMI; and Diana M. Vasil, RNC-NIC. University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and Lyndon Baines Johnson General Hospital/Harris County Hospital District (U10 HD21373): Kathleen A. Kennedy, MD, MPH; Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH; Patricia W. Evans, MD; Esther G. Akpa, RN, BSN; Magda Cedillo Guajardo, RN, BSN, FAACM; Susan E.Dieterich, PhD; Beverly Foley Harris, RN, BSN; Claudia I. Franco, RNC, MSN; Charles Green, PhD; Margarita Jiminez, MD, MPH; Anna E. Lis, RN, BSN; Terri Major-Kincade, MD, MPH; Sara C. Martin, RN, BSN; Georgia E. McDavid, RN; Brenda H. Morris, MD; Patricia Ann Orekoya, RN, BSN; Patti L. Pierce Tate, RCP; M. Layne Poundstone, RN, BSN; Stacey Reddoch, BA; Saba Khan Siddiki, MD; Maegan C. Simmons, RN; Laura L. Whitely, MD; and Sharon L. Wright, MT. University of Utah Medical Center, Intermountain Medical Center, LDS Hospital, and Primary Children’s Medical Center (U10 HD53124 and M01 RR64): Roger G. Faix, MD; Bradley A. Yoder, MD; Michael Steffen, MS, CPM; Shawna Baker, RN; Karie Bird, RN; Jill Burnett, RN; Jennifer J. Jensen, RN, BSN; Karen A. Osborne, RN, BSN, CCRC; Cynthia Spencer, RNC; and Kimberlee Weaver-Lewis, RN, BSN. Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Brenner Children’s Hospital, and Forsyth Medical Center (U10 HD40498 and M01 RR7122): T. Michael O’Shea, MD, MPH; Robert G. Dillard, MD; Nancy J. Peters, RN, CCRP; Korinne Chiu, MA; Deborah Evans Allred, MA, LPA; Donald J. Goldstein, PhD; Raquel Halfond, MA; Barbara G. Jackson, RN, BSN; Carroll Peterson, MA; Ellen L. Waldrep, MS; Melissa Whalen Morris, MA; and Gail Wiley Hounshell, PhD. Wayne State University, Hutzel Women’s Hospital, and Children’s Hospital of Michigan (U10 HD21385): Beena G. Sood, MD, MS; Yvette R. Johnson, MD, MPH; Rebecca Bara, RN, BSN; Laura Goldston, MA; Mary E. Johnson, RN, BSN; Deborah Kennedy, RN, BSN; and Geraldine Muran, RN, BSN. Yale University, Yale–New Haven Children’s Hospital, and Bridgeport Hospital (U10 HD27871, UL1 RR24139, M01 RR125, and M01 RR6022): Richard A. Ehrenkranz, MD; Christine Butler, MD; Harris Jacobs, MD; Patricia Cervone, RN; Nancy Close, PhD; Patricia Gettner, RN; Walter Gilliam, PhD; Sheila Greisman, RN; Monica Konstantino, RN, BSN; JoAnn Poulsen, RN; Elaine Romano, MSN; Janet Taft, RN, BSN; and Joanne Williams, RN, BSN.
Disclaimer: The comments and views of the authors do not necessarily represent the views of the NICHD.
Additional Contributions: We are indebted to our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study.