Accepted for Publication: October 20, 2013.
Published Online: February 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4779.
Study concept and design: Peterson, Ailes, Gilboa.
Acquisition of data: Peterson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Peterson.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Ailes, Gilboa.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Study supervision: Gilboa.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by cooperative agreements under PA 96043, PA 02081 and FOA DD09-001 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source designed the protocol for the original data collection and approved authors’ protocol for this study. The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; analysis or interpretation of the data; and preparation of the manuscript. The CDC and the California Department of Public Health reviewed the manuscript and approved submission for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC or the California Department of Public Health.
Additional Contributions: We thank the participating families, staff, and scientists who contribute to the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We thank the Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Program of the California Department of Public Health for providing data on study subjects for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.