Accepted for Publication: September 5, 2013.
Published Online: December 30, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4248.
Study concept and design: Pappas, Shankaran, Bell, Hale, Higgins.
Acquisition of data: Pappas, Shankaran, Stoll, Walsh, Hale, Newman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Pappas, Kendrick, Shankaran, Bell, Laptook, Das, Hale, Higgins.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pappas, Kendrick, Hale, Newman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kendrick, Shankaran, Das.
Obtained funding: Shankaran, Stoll, Bell, Walsh.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stoll, Higgins.
Study supervision: Das, Higgins.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Center for Research Resources, and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences provided grant support for the NRN Generic Database and Follow-up studies.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The following investigators, in addition to those listed as authors, participated in this study: NRN Steering Committee Chair: Michael S. Caplan, MD, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine; Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (grant U10 HD27904): Betty R. Vohr, MD, Angelita M. Hensman, RN, BSN, Robert Burke, MD, Melinda Caskey, MD, Katharine Johnson, MD, Barbara Alksninis, PNP, Theresa M. Leach, MEd, CAES, Victoria E. Watson, MS, CAS; Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital (grants U10 HD21364 and M01 RR80): Avroy A. Fanaroff, MD, Deanne E. Wilson-Costello, MD, Bonnie S. Siner, RN, Monika Bhola, MD, Gulgun Yalcinkaya, MD, Harriet G. Friedman, MA; Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University Hospital, and Good Samaritan Hospital (grants U10 HD27853 and M01 RR8084): Kurt Schibler, MD, Edward F. Donovan, MD, Kate Bridges, MD, Barbara Alexander, RN, Cathy Grisby, BSN, CCRC, Holly L. Mincey, RN, BSN, Jody Hessling, RN, Teresa L. Gratton, PA, Jean J. Steichen, MD, Kimberly Yolton, PhD; Duke University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Alamance Regional Medical Center, and Durham Regional Hospital (grants U10 HD40492 and M01 RR30): Ronald N. Goldberg, MD, C. Michael Cotten, MD, MHS, Ricki F. Goldstein, MD, Kathy J. Auten, MSHS, Kimberley A. Fisher, PhD, FNP-BC IBCLC, Sandra Grimes, RN, BSN, Kathryn E. Gustafson, PhD, Melody B. Lohmeyer, RN, MSN; Emory University, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory University Hospital Midtown (grants U10 HD27851 and M01 RR39): David P. Carlton, MD, Ira Adams-Chapman, MD; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA; Indiana University, University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children, and Wishard Health Services (grants U10 HD27856 and M01 RR750): Brenda B. Poindexter, MD, MS, Anna M. Dusick, MD, Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN, CCRC, Faithe Hamer, BS, Carolyn Lytle, MD, MPH, Heike M. Minnich, PsyD, HSPP; RTI International (grant U10 HD36790): W. Kenneth Poole, PhD, Dennis Wallace, PhD, Jamie E. Newman, PhD, MPH, Jeanette O’Donnell Auman, BS, Margaret M. Crawford, BS, CCRP, Carolyn M. Petrie Huitema, MS, CCRP, Kristin M. Zaterka-Baxter, RN, BSN, CCRP; Stanford University, Dominican Hospital, El Camino Hospital, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (grants U10 HD27880 and M01 RR70): Krisa P. Van Meurs, MD, David K. Stevenson, MD, Susan R. Hintz, MD, MS(Epi), Alexis S. Davis, MD, MS(Epi), M. Bethany Ball, BS, CCRC, Andrew W. Palmquist, RN, Melinda S. Proud, RCP, Elizabeth Bruno, PhD, Maria Elena DeAnda, PhD, Anne M. DeBattista, RN, PNP, Jean G. Kohn, MD, MPH, Hali E.Weiss, MD; Tufts Medical Center, Floating Hospital for Children (grants U10 HD53119 and M01 RR54): Ivan D. Frantz III, MD, John M. Fiascone, MD, Brenda L. MacKinnon, RNC, Anne Furey, MPH, Ellen Nylen, RN, BSN, Elisabeth C. McGowan, MD; University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children’s Hospital of Alabama (grants U10 HD34216 and M01 RR32): Waldemar A. Carlo, MD, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, MD, Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, MD, MPH, Monica V. Collins, RN, BSN, MaEd, Shirley S. Cosby, RN, BSN, Fred J. Biasini, PhD, Kristen C. Johnston, MSN, CRNP, Kathleen G. Nelson, MD, Cryshelle S. Patterson, PhD, Vivien A. Phillips, RN, BSN, Sally Whitley, MA, OTR-L, FAOTA; University of California, San Diego Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns (grant U10 HD40461): Neil N. Finer, MD, Yvonne E. Vaucher, MD, MPH, David Kaegi, MD, Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD, Kathy Arnell, RNC, Clarence Demetrio, RN, Martha G. Fuller, RN, MSN, Wade Rich, BSHS, RRT; University of Iowa, Children's Hospital (grants U10 HD53109 and M01 RR59): Michael J. Acarregui, MD, Karen J. Johnson, RN, BSN, Diane L. Eastman, RN, CPNP, MA; University of Miami, Holtz Children's Hospital (grants U10 HD21397 and M01 RR16587): Shahnaz Duara, MD, Charles R. Bauer, MD, Ruth Everett-Thomas, RN, MSN, Sylvia Fajardo-Hiriart, MD, Arielle Rigaud, MD, Maria Calejo, MS, Silvia M. Frade Eguaras, MA, Michelle Harwood Berkowits, PhD, Andrea Garcia, MS, Helina Pierre, BA, Alexandra Stoerger, BA; University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (grants U10 HD53089 and M01 RR997): Kristi L. Watterberg, MD, Jean R. Lowe, PhD, Janell F. Fuller, MD, Robin K. Ohls, MD, Conra Backstrom Lacy, RN, Rebecca Montman, BSN; University of Rochester Medical Center, Golisano Children’s Hospital (grants U10 HD40521, UL1 RR24160, and M01 RR44): Dale L. Phelps, MD, Gary J. Myers, MD, Linda J. Reubens, RN, CCRC, Erica Burnell, RN, Diane Hust, MS, RN, CS, Julie Babish Johnson, MSW, Rosemary L. Jensen, Emily Kushner, MA, Joan Merzbach, LMSW, Kelley Yost, PhD, Lauren Zwetsch, RN, MS, PNP; University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and Lyndon Baines Johnson General Hospital/Harris County Hospital District (grant U10 HD21373): Kathleen A. Kennedy, MD, MPH, Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH, Nora I. Alaniz, BS, Patricia W. Evans, MD, Charles Green, PhD, Beverly Foley Harris, RN, BSN, Margarita Jiminez, MD, MPH, Anna E. Lis, RN, BSN, Sarah Martin, RN, BSN, Georgia E. McDavid, RN, Brenda H. Morris, MD, M. Layne Poundstone, RN, BSN, Saba Siddiki, MD, Maegan C. Simmons, RN, Patti L. Pierce Tate, RCP, Sharon L. Wright, MT(ASCP); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Parkland Health & Hospital System, and Children's Medical Center Dallas (grants U10 HD40689 and M01 RR633): Pablo J. Sánchez, MD, Roy J. Heyne, MD, Walid A. Salhab, MD, Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD, Alicia Guzman, Melissa H. Leps, RN, Nancy A. Miller, RN, Gaynelle Hensley, RN, Sally S. Adams, MS, RN, CPNP, Linda A. Madden, RN, CPNP, Elizabeth T. Heyne, MS, MA, PA-C, PsyD, Janet S. Morgan, RN, Catherine Twell Boatman, MS, CIMI, Lizette E. Torres, RN; University of Utah Medical Center, Intermountain Medical Center, LDS Hospital, and Primary Children's Medical Center (grants U10 HD53124, M01 RR64, and UL1 RR25764): Roger G. Faix, MD, Bradley A. Yoder, MD, Karen A. Osborne, RN, BSN, CCRC, Cynthia Spencer, RNC, Kimberlee Weaver-Lewis, RN, BSN, Shawna Baker, RN, Karie Bird, RN, Jill Burnett, RNC, Michael Steffen, MS, CPM; Wake Forest University, Baptist Medical Center, Forsyth Medical Center, and Brenner Children’s Hospital (grants U10 HD40498 and M01 RR7122): T. Michael O’Shea, MD, MPH, Robert G. Dillard, MD, Lisa K. Washburn, MD, Barbara G. Jackson, RN, BSN, Nancy Peters, RN, Korinne Chiu, MA, Deborah Evans Allred, MA, LPA, Donald J. Goldstein, PhD, Raquel Halfond, MA, Carroll Peterson, MA, Ellen L. Waldrep, MS, Cherrie D. Welch, MD, MPH, Melissa Whalen Morris, MA, Gail Wiley Hounshell, PhD; Wayne State University, Hutzel Women’s Hospital and Children’s Hospital of Michigan (grant U10 HD21385): Rebecca Bara, RN, BSN, Laura A. Goldston, MA; Yale University, Yale–New Haven Children’s Hospital, and Bridgeport Hospital (grants U10 HD27871, UL1 RR24139, and M01 RR125): Richard A. Ehrenkranz, MD, Harris Jacobs, MD, Christine G. Butler, MD, Patricia Cervone, RN, Sheila Greisman, RN, Monica Konstantino, RN, BSN, JoAnn Poulsen, RN, Janet Taft, RN, BSN, Joanne Williams, RN, BSN, Elaine Romano, MSN.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Information: Data collected at participating sites of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NRN were transmitted to RTI International, the DCC for the network, which stored, managed, and analyzed the data for this study.
Additional Contributions: We are indebted to our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study.