Accepted for Publication: August 15, 2013.
Published Online: December 9, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4009.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition of data: Hawkins.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Oesterle, Brown, Abbott.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hawkins, Oesterle, Brown.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hawkins, Oesterle, Abbott, Catalano.
Statistical analysis: Oesterle, Brown, Abbott.
Obtained funding: Hawkins.
Study supervision: Hawkins.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Catalano is a board member of Channing Bete Co, distributor of Supporting School Success and Guiding Good Choices. These programs were used in some communities in the study that produced the data set used in this article. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by research grant R01 DA015183-03 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, with cofunding from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.
Additional Contributions: David M. Murray, PhD, Ohio State University, provided paid statistical consultation on this project, but the authors are responsible for all analyses and results. Tanya Williams provided editorial help. We acknowledge the contributions of the communities participating in the Community Youth Development Study and the collaborating state offices of drug abuse prevention in Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Oregon, Utah, and Washington.