Accepted for Publication: June 20, 2013.
Published Online: November 11, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.3266.
Study concept and design: Bonafide, Localio, Roberts, Nadkarni, Keren.
Acquisition of data: Bonafide, Roberts, Weirich.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bonafide, Localio, Roberts, Nadkarni.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Bonafide, Localio, Roberts, Keren.
Obtained funding: Bonafide, Keren.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nadkarni, Weirich, Keren.
Study supervision: Localio, Nadkarni, Keren.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Health Research Formula Fund Award from the Pennsylvania Department of Health (Dr Keren).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Donna Czaplicki, RN, BSN, assisted with medical record review and Sherri Kubis, RN, Judy Verger, RN, PhD, Rich Lin, MD, Akira Nishisaki, MD, MSCE, and the staff of the Critical Care Center for Evidence and Outcomes, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia assisted with data queries.