While the effectiveness of dexamethasone as a treatment for patients with moderate to severe croup is well established, relatively few studies have examined the use of this treatment for mild croup. Luria and colleagues conducted a randomized controlled trial of 264 children with croup, comparing oral dexamethasone with nebulized dexamethasone, with placebo. Children receiving oral dexamethasone had a lower rate of treatment failure, greater improvement, and were less likely to seek subsequent additional care for the illness. Oral treatment is easier to use and seems to be more effective than nebulized dexamethasone. However, 10 children with croup would need to be treated with oral dexamethasone to prevent 1 child from returning with croup severe enough to warrant steroid administration.