Accepted for Publication: October 26, 2012.
Published Online: April 22, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.1389
Author Contributions: Dr Cheng had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Cheng, Hunt, Donoghue, Nelson-McMillan, Nishisaki, Moyer, Brett-Fleegler, Kost, Stryjewski, Podraza, Hamilton, Hopkins, Duff, and Nadkarni. Acquisition of data: Cheng, Hunt, Donoghue, Nelson-McMillan, Nishisaki, LeFlore, Eppich, Moyer, Brett-Fleegler, Kleinman, Anderson, Adler, Braga, Kost, Stryjewski, Min, Podraza, Lopreiato, Hamilton, Stone, Reid, Hopkins, Manos, and Nadkarni. Analysis and interpretation of data: Cheng, Hunt, Donoghue, Nelson-McMillan, LeFlore, Eppich, Anderson, Stryjewski, Duff, Richard, and Nadkarni. Drafting of the manuscript: Cheng, Hunt, Nelson-McMillan, LeFlore, Anderson, and Nadkarni. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cheng, Hunt, Donoghue, Nishisaki, LeFlore, Eppich, Moyer, Brett-Fleegler, Kleinman, Adler, Braga, Kost, Stryjewski, Min, Podraza, Lopreiato, Hamilton, Stone, Reid, Hopkins, Manos, Duff, Richard, and Nadkarni. Statistical analysis: Hunt, Nishisaki, LeFlore, Anderson, and Richard. Obtained funding: Cheng, Hunt, Nishisaki, and Nadkarni. Administrative, technical, and material support: Cheng, Donoghue, Nelson-McMillan, Nishisaki, Moyer, Brett-Fleegler, Kleinman, Min, Podraza, Hamilton, Stone, Reid, Hopkins, and Manos. Study supervision: Cheng, Hunt, Donoghue, Nishisaki, Moyer, Stryjewski, Lopreiato, and Nadkarni.
EXPRESS Investigators: Kristine Boyle, MS, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital; John R. Boulet, PhD, Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research; Laura Corbin, MD, Oregon Health Science University; Marino Festa, MBBS, Children's Hospital at Westmead; John Gosbee, MD, University of Michigan Health Systems; Laura Gosbee, MD, Red Forest Consulting LLC; Louis P. Halamek, MD, Stanford University; Takanari Ikeyama, MD, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Liana Kappus, MEd, Yale New Haven Health; Douglas Leonard, MD, Oregon Health and Science University; Frank Overly, MD, Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Jenny Rudolph, PhD, Harvard Medical School; Stephen Schexnayder, MD, University of Arkansas; Robert Simon, EdD, Harvard Medical School; Stephanie Sudikoff, MD, Yale University School of Medicine; and Kathleen Ventre, MD, University of Colorado.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Cheng reports receiving a research grant from the American Heart Association (AHA) for design and conduct of the study and collection and analysis of data, a grant from the Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine, and an infrastructure grant for the EXPRESS collaborative to support administrative and technical positions (funds from the Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine grant were not used for conducting this study). Dr Hunt reports receiving a research grant from the Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine, The Hartwell Foundation, and money paid for expert testimony by DeBlasio & Donnell LLC. Dr Nelson-McMillan reports receiving a research grant from the AHA to provide PALS books for this study. Dr Nishisaki reports receiving funding from the Laerdal Foundation Center for Excellence and AHRQ Ro3 Pilot Grant (not relevant to this study). Dr Eppich reports receiving a research grant from the AHA for this study, travel reimbursement as a board member of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, a research grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for an in situ simulation project, and travel reimbursement and salary support from the Center for Medical Simulation and the Tübingen Center for Patient Safety and Simulation. Dr Brett-Fleegler reports receiving a research grant from the AHA. Dr Kleinman reports receiving travel reimbursement as a volunteer for the AHA, is an employee of the Children's Hospital Boston Anesthesia Foundation, and is a paid speaker for Children's Mercy Medical Center. Dr Anderson reports being a consultant for SimHealth, employment at Oregon Health Sciences University, receiving payment for a lecture from The Doctor's Company, and receiving payment from the American Academy of Pediatrics for development of video cases. Dr Kost reports being an employee of Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children and receiving continuing medical education allocation from employers for travel. Dr Stone reports receiving a research grant from the AHA funding for this study and royalties for Up to Date articles written on femur fractures for children. Dr Reid reports receiving a research grant from the AHA for this study. Dr Nadkarni reports receiving support from the Laerdal Foundation for Acute Care Medicine Center of Excellence Grant (no specific funding for this study), Laerdal Medical Corporation, unrelated research on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, and sponsored travel for visiting professorship and presentation at simulation users groups (unrelated to this study).
Funding/Support: This study was funded by an educational research grant from the AHA.
Role of the Sponsors: Funds from this grant were used for the design and conduct of the study, as well as collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data.
Online-Only Material: Listen to an author interview about this article, and others, at http://bit.ly/MW1WVH. This article is featured in the JAMA Pediatrics Journal Club. Go to here to download teaching PowerPoint slides.
Additional Contributions: Anne Marie White, RN, BC Children's Hospital participated in recruitment and data collection; Albert Ho, Center for Excellence in Simulation Education and Innovation conducted video processing; Ferooz Sekandarpoor, Center for Excellence in Simulation Education and Innovation conducted video processing; and Mary Patterson, MD, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, participated in study design. No financial compensation was received by these individuals for their contributions to the study.