Accepted for Publication: August 28, 2012.
Published Online: March 4, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.866
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Payne, Hintz, Hibbs, Walsh, and Wilson-Costello. Acquisition of data: Payne, Walsh, Vohr, and Wilson-Costello. Analysis and interpretation of data: Payne, Hintz, Hibbs, Walsh, Bann, and Wilson-Costello. Drafting of the manuscript: Payne, Bann, and Wilson-Costello. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Payne, Hintz, Hibbs, Walsh, Vohr, and Wilson-Costello. Statistical analysis: Bann. Obtained funding: Payne, Hintz, and Walsh. Administrative, technical, and material support: Wilson-Costello. Study supervision: Hibbs and Wilson-Costello.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network:NRN Steering Committee Chair: Michael S. Caplan, MD, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine. Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (U10 HD27904): Abbot R. Laptook, MD; Angelita M. Hensman, RN, BSN; Robert Burke, MD; Melinda Caskey, MD; Katharine Johnson, MD; Barbara Alksninis, PNP; Dawn Andrews, RN, MS; Kristen Angela, RN; Theresa M. Leach, MEd, CAES; Victoria E. Watson, MS, CAS; Suzy Ventura. Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (U10 HD21364, M01 RR80): Avroy A. Fanaroff, MD; Nancy S. Newman, RN, BA; Bonnie S. Siner, RN; Monika Bhola, MD; Gulgun Yalcinkaya, MD; Harriet G. Friedman, MA. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University Hospital, and Good Samaritan Hospital (U10 HD27853, M01 RR8084): Kurt Schibler, MD; Edward F. Donovan, MD; Kate Bridges, MD; Barbara Alexander, RN; Cathy Grisby, BSN, CCRC; Holly L. Mincey, RN, BSN; Jody Hessling, RN; Teresa L. Gratton, PA; Jean J. Steichen, MD; Kimberly Yolton, PhD. Duke University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Alamance Regional Medical Center, and Durham Regional Hospital (U10 HD40492, M01 RR30): Ronald N. Goldberg, MD; C. Michael Cotten, MD, MHS; Kathy J. Auten, MSHS; Kimberley A. Fisher, PhD, FNP-BC, IBCLC; Sandra Grimes, RN, BSN; Kathryn E. Gustafson, PhD; Melody B. Lohmeyer, RN, MSN. Emory University, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory University Hospital Midtown (U10 HD27851, M01 RR39): Barbara J. Stoll, MD; David P. Carlton, MD; Ellen C. Hale, RN, BS, CCRC; Ira Adams-Chapman, MD. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Rosemary D. Higgins, MD; Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA. Indiana University, University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children, and Wishard Health Services (U10 HD27856, M01 RR750): Brenda B. Poindexter, MD, MS; Anna M. Dusick, MD; Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN, CCRC; Faithe Hamer, BS; Carolyn Lytle, MD, MPH; Heike M. Minnich, PsyD, HSPP. RTI International (U10 HD36790): Abhik Das, PhD; W. Kenneth Poole, PhD; Dennis Wallace, PhD; Jamie E. Newman, PhD, MPH; Jeanette O’Donnell Auman, BS; Margaret Cunningham, BS; Carolyn M. Petrie Huitema, MS; Kristin M. Zaterka-Baxter, RN, BSN. Stanford University, Dominican Hospital, El Camino Hospital, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (U10 HD27880, M01 RR70): Krisa P. Van Meurs, MD; David K. Stevenson, MD; Alexis S. Davis, MD, MS Epi; M. Bethany Ball, BS, CCRC; Andrew W. Palmquist, RN; Melinda S. Proud, RCP; Elizabeth Bruno, PhD; Maria Elena DeAnda, PhD; Anne M. DeBattista, RN, PNP; Jean G. Kohn, MD, MPH; Hali E. Weiss, MD. Tufts Medical Center, Floating Hospital for Children (U10 HD53119, M01 RR54): Ivan D. Frantz III, MD; John M. Fiascone, MD; Brenda L. MacKinnon, RNC; Anne Furey, MPH; Ellen Nylen, RN, BSN; Elisabeth C. McGowan, MD. University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children's Hospital of Alabama (U10 HD34216, M01 RR32): Waldemar A. Carlo, MD; Namasivayam Ambalavanan, MD; Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, MD, MPH; Monica V. Collins, RN, BSN, MaEd; Shirley S. Cosby, RN, BSN; Fred J. Biasini, PhD; Kristen C. Johnston, MSN, CRNP; Kathleen G. Nelson, MD; Cryshelle S. Patterson, PhD; Vivien A. Phillips, RN, BSN; Sally Whitley, MA, OTR-L FAOTA. University of California–San Diego Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns (U10 HD40461): Neil N. Finer, MD; Yvonne E. Vaucher, MD, MPH; David Kaegi, MD; Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD; David Kaegi, MD; Kathy Arnell, RNC; Clarence Demetrio, RN; Martha G. Fuller, RN, MSN; Wade Rich, BSHS, RRT; Radmila West, PhD. University of Iowa, Children's Hospital (U10 HD53109, M01 RR59): Edward F. Bell, MD; Michael J. Acarregui, MD; Karen J. Johnson, RN, BSN; Diane L. Eastman, RN, CPNP, MA. University of Miami, Holtz Children's Hospital (U10 HD21397, M01 RR16587): Shahnaz Duara, MD; Charles R. Bauer, MD; Ruth Everett-Thomas, RN, MSN; Sylvia Hiriart-Fajardo, MD; Arielle Rigaud, MD; Maria Calejo, MS; Silvia M. Frade Eguaras, MA; Michelle Harwood Berkowits, PhD; Andrea Garcia, MA; Helina Pierre, BA; Alexandra Stoerger, BA. University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (U10 HD53089, M01 RR997): Kristi L. Watterberg, MD; Jean R. Lowe, PhD; Janell F. Fuller, MD; Robin K. Ohls, MD; Conra Backstrom Lacy, RN; Rebecca Montman, BSN. University of Rochester Medical Center, Golisano Children's Hospital (U10 HD40521, UL1 RR24160, M01 RR44): Dale L. Phelps, MD; Gary J. Myers, MD; Linda J. Reubens, RN, CCRC; Erica Burnell, RN; Diane Hust, MS, RN, CS; Julie Babish Johnson, MSW; Rosemary L. Jensen; Emily Kushner, MA; Joan Merzbach, LMSW; Kelley Yost, PhD; Lauren Zwetsch, RN, MS, PNP. University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and Lyndon Baines Johnson General Hospital/Harris County Hospital District (U10 HD21373): Kathleen A. Kennedy, MD, MPH; Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH; Nora I. Alaniz, BS; Patricia W. Evans, MD; Charles Green, PhD; Beverly Foley Harris, RN, BSN; Margarita Jiminez, MD, MPH; Anna E. Lis, RN, BSN; Sarah Martin, RN, BSN; Georgia E. McDavid, RN; Brenda H. Morris, MD; M. Layne Poundstone, RN, BSN; Saba Siddiki, MD; Maegan C. Simmons, RN; Patti L. Pierce Tate, RCP; Sharon L. Wright, MT(ASCP). University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Parkland Health and Hospital System, and Children's Medical Center Dallas (U10 HD40689, M01 RR633): Pablo J. Sánchez, MD; Roy J. Heyne, MD; Walid A. Salhab, MD; Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD; Alicia Guzman; Melissa H. Leps, RN; Nancy A. Miller, RN; Gaynelle Hensley, RN; Sally S. Adams, MS, RN, CPNP; Linda A. Madden, RN, CPNP; Elizabeth Heyne, PsyD, PA-C; Janet S. Morgan, RN; Catherine Twell Boatman, MS, CIMI; Lizette E. Torres, RN. University of Utah Medical Center, Intermountain Medical Center, LDS Hospital, and Primary Children's Medical Center (U10 HD53124, M01 RR64, UL1 RR25764): Roger G. Faix, MD; Bradley A. Yoder, MD; Karen A. Osborne, RN, BSN, CCRC; Cynthia Spencer, RNC; Kimberlee Weaver-Lewis, RN, BSN; Shawna Baker, RN; Karie Bird, RN; Jill Burnett, RNC; Mike Steffen, PhD; Karen Zanetti, RN. Wake Forest University, Baptist Medical Center, Forsyth Medical Center, and Brenner Children's Hospital (U10 HD40498, M01 RR7122): T. Michael O’Shea, MD, MPH; Robert G. Dillard, MD; Lisa K. Washburn, MD; Barbara G. Jackson, RN, BSN; Nancy Peters, RN; Korinne Chiu, MA; Deborah Evans Allred, MA, LPA; Donald J. Goldstein, PhD; Raquel Halfond, MA; Carroll Peterson, MA; Ellen L. Waldrep, MS; Cherrie D. Welch, MD, MPH; Melissa Whalen Morris, MA; Gail Wiley Hounshell, PhD. Wayne State University, Hutzel Women's Hospital and Children's Hospital of Michigan (U10 HD21385): Seetha Shankaran, MD; Athina Pappas, MD; Rebecca Bara, RN, BSN; Laura A. Goldston, MA. Yale University, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, and Bridgeport Hospital (U10 HD27871, UL1 RR24139, M01 RR125): Richard A. Ehrenkranz, MD; Harris Jacobs, MD; Christine G. Butler, MD; Patricia Cervone, RN; Sheila Greisman, RN; Monica Konstantino, RN, BSN; JoAnn Poulsen, RN; Janet Taft, RN, BSN; Joanne Williams, RN, BSN; Elaine Romano, MSN.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research has been supported by the National Institutes of Health grant 5T32HD060537-01 and the Rainbow Babies and Children's Foundation Fellowship Research Award Program. The National Institutes of Health, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Center for Research Resources, and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences provided grant support for the Neonatal Research Network's Generic Database and Follow-up Studies.
Role of the Sponsor: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network collected data and provided critical revisions of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Contributions: Douglas Einstadter, MD, MPH, Dr Payne's thesis advisor and mentor, provided editorial support. We are indebted to our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study.