Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of health care–associated diarrhea among adults in the United States and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. During the past decade, the epidemiology of C difficile infection (CDI) has changed, including a rise in the rate and severity of infection related to the emergence of a hypervirulent strain as well as an increase in disease among outpatients in community settings. Although less is known about CDI among pediatric patients, C difficile is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen among children. In this review, we discuss recent updates in the incidence and epidemiology of CDI among children, including risk factors for infection, and highlight the importance of CDI in special populations of children, particularly those with inflammatory bowel disease or cancer. In addition, we review current knowledge in the areas of diagnosis and management of CDI among children and highlight future areas for research.
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