Accepted for Publication: April 17, 2012.
Published Online: September 10, 2012. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.1023
Author Contributions: Drs Langhan, Mallory, Hertzog, Lowrie, and Cravero had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Langhan, Mallory, Hertzog, Lowrie, and Cravero. Acquisition of data: Mallory and Cravero. Analysis and interpretation of data: Langhan, Mallory, Hertzog, Lowrie, and Cravero. Drafting of the manuscript: Langhan. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Langhan, Mallory, Hertzog, Lowrie, and Cravero. Statistical analysis: Mallory and Cravero. Administrative, technical, and material support: Langhan. Study supervision: Langhan and Cravero.
Group Information: The following hospitals comprise the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium: Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, Ohio; Alfred I. Dupont Children's Hospital, Wilmington, Delaware; Arizona Childrens Center at Maricopa Medical Center, Phoenix; Avera Mckennan Hospital, Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Backus Children's Hospital, Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, Georgia; Blank Children's Hospital–Iowa Methodist Medical Center, Des Moines; Brenner Children's Hospital, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, North Carolina; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Egleston Campus, Atlanta, Georgia; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Scottish Rite Campus; Children's Hospital at the Medical Center of Central Georgia, Macon; Children's Hospital of Alabama, Birmingham; Children's Memorial Hospital–Emergency Department, Chicago, Illinois; Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago; Children's Mercy Hospital–Emergency Department, Kansas City, Missouri; Chris Evert Children's Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Columbus Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; East Tennessee Children's Hospital, Knoxville; Eastern Maine Medical Center, Bangor; Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando; Gundersen Lutheran, LaCrosse, Wisconsin; Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Holtz Children's Hospital at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, Miami, Florida; Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Hollywood, Florida; Kentucky Children's Hospital, Lexington; Kosair Children's Hospital, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky; Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; North Central Baptist Hospital, San Antonio, Texas; Palmetto Health Richland Memorial Hospital, Columbia, South Carolina; Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio; The Children's Hospital at Providence, Anchorage, Alaska; UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts; UNC Healthcare, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Virginia, Charlottesville; Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee; Yale New Haven Children's Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Langhan received an honorarium to participate in an expert panel at an advisory board meeting of Oridion Capnography, Inc in November 2011 during the revising of the manuscript.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by grant Clinical and Transitional Science Award UL1 RR024139 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, a component of the National Institutes of Health, and National Institutes of Health roadmap for Medical Research (Dr Langhan).
Previous Presentations: An abstract from these data was presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition; October 14, 2011; Boston, Massachusetts; and the Society for Pediatric Sedation Meeting; May 22, 2012; Cleveland, Ohio.
Additional Contributions: We would like to acknowledge the efforts of the PSRC in creating this database and collecting data across multiple institutions.