The health benefits of male circumcision (MC) have been extensively documented in observational studies1 and by randomized controlled trials in Africa showing that MC reduces heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from women to men by 55% to 76%2- 4 and provides significant protection against human papillomavirus infection.5 Male circumcision is negatively associated with prostate cancer in men6 and with cervical cancer in female partners of men infected with human papillomavirus.7
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