Accepted for Publication: March 6, 2012.
Author Contributions: This manuscript was written by Dr Kharbanda, and all authors take full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of data analysis. Study concept and design: Kharbanda, Dudley, Bajaj, Stevenson, Macias, Mittal, Bachur, Bennett, Sinclair, Huang, and Dayan. Acquisition of data: Kharbanda, Dudley, Bajaj, Stevenson, Macias, Mittal, Bachur, Bennett, Sinclair, Huang, and Dayan. Analysis and interpretation of data: Kharbanda, Dudley, Stevenson, Macias, Bachur, Sinclair, and Dayan. Drafting of the manuscript: Kharbanda and Dayan. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kharbanda, Dudley, Bajaj, Stevenson, Macias, Mittal, Bachur, Bennett, Sinclair, Huang, and Dayan. Statistical analysis: Kharbanda, Bachur, and Dayan. Obtained funding: Kharbanda and Dayan. Administrative, technical, and material support: Kharbanda, Bajaj, Stevenson, Macias, and Sinclair. Study supervision: Macias, Mittal, Sinclair, and Dayan.
Members of the Executive Committee of the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics: Marc Auerbach, MD, and Lei Chen, MD, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Todd Chang, MD, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Andrea Cruz, MD, and Charles G. Macias, MD, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston; Denise Dowd, MD, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Medicine; Stephen Freedman, MD, Pediatric Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Anupam B. Kharbanda, MD, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; Prashant Mahajan, MD, University of Michigan, Detroit; Jared Muenzer, MD, and David Schnadower, MD, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri; and Joe Zorc, MD, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Kharbanda received salary support through the Empire Clinical Research Program of New York State.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant UL1 RR024156 from the National Center for Research Resources, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. The PEM-CRC data center is supported in part by the Center for Clinical Effectiveness at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital.
Previous Presentations: This study was presented in part at the Annual Meeting of Pediatric Academic Societies; April 30, 2011; Denver, Colorado.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: This article is featured in the Archives Journal Club. Go here to download teaching PowerPoint slides.
Additional Contributions: We thank all the clinicians who enrolled patients into this study and the research coordinators who greatly facilitated study completion.
This article was corrected for errors on August 30, 2012.