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Am J Dis Child. 1911;I(4):272-275. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1911.04100040025003.
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It was 100 years after Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood that Hales demonstrated blood-pressure (1733), but it was a century later before physiologic experiments gave any reliable results. Ludwig1 in 1847 was the first to obtain a blood-pressure tracing, by means of a recording manometer directly connected with an open artery. These experiments quickly led to the introduction of clinical methods. V. Basch in 1882 constructed the tonometer, the perlotte of which could be placed over any artery. Roy and Adami2 in 1890 constructed the first instrument based on direct compression of the artery—a flexible rubber bag containing water to exert the pressure and a mercurial manometer for a recorder. In 1896 Riva Rocca and Leonard Hill independently substituted air for water in the bag for compression and, although a number of other instruments have since been invented, the Riva Rocca model is the one


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